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Spanning Tree

Implementing Cisco Networks


Use STP?
Spanning Tree Terms
Spanning Tree Operation
STP Port States
STP Timers
STP Versions
CCNA Project Report


2 Bridge-to-Bridge Protocol
Loop Avoidance Mechanism
Developed by Radia Perlman
Defined in IEEE 802.1d standard
Enabled by default on Cisco
Catalyst switches
Uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm
Creates Loop-free Logical Topology
CCNA Project Report

Why Use STP?

The Need for STP
In a layer 2 switched network, while multiple links between
devices provide protection against single points of failure,
they also introduce physical loops in the network.
Redundant links can cause a lot of problems, including:
Broadcast storms
Multiple copies of Ethernet frame
Thrashing of the MAC table

STP prevents physical networking loops from occurring

by identifying the redundant links in the network, and blocking
some of them to create a loop-free logical topology.

CCNA Project Report

Spanning Tree Terms


Bridge the focal

point of the network that
influences all STP decisions
Root Port the port (on a
nonroot bridge) used to reach
the root bridge
Designated Port the port
with the least advertised
path cost to the root bridge
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Spanning Tree Terms


ID Priority + MAC Address,

used to identify each switch in the
network, default priority = 32,768
BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit,
used by switches to exchange STP
information among themselves
Path/Port Cost determined by
the bandwidth of a link

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Spanning Tree Operation

Step 1: Electing a Root Bridge
Bridge Priority, Bridge ID, Root Bridge

Step 2: Electing Root Ports

Path/Port Cost, Root Path Cost, Root Port

Step 3: Electing Designated Ports

Path/Port Cost, Root Path Cost

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STP Port States


Administratively down
Blocking Receives BPDUs only
Listening Building active
Learning Building bridging table
Forwarding Building MAC table,
sending/receiving user data

CCNA Project Report

STP Timers

Time how often BPDUs are

sent (default = 2 seconds)
Max Age maximum time to retain
the received BPDU information
(default = 20 seconds)
Forward Delay time to wait
before transitioning from listening to
learning state, and from learning to
forwarding state (default = 15
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STP Versions

Tree Protocol (IEEE

Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST+)
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, or
RSTP (IEEE 802.1w)

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Thank You

Presented by:

Premdeep S. Gill
Roll# LU-0453-10
Batch# 100223
CCNA Project Report