Ethics in Advertising and Promotion

Ethics :: Moral principles and values that govern the Ethics Moral principles and values that govern the actions and decisions of an individual or group.. actions and decisions of an individual or group

Not Not can can

all issues all issues be regulated be regulated

A marketing or A marketing or promotion action promotion action may be legal but may be legal but not ethical not ethical

Marketers must Marketers must decide the decide the appropriateness appropriateness of their actions of their actions

• The Golden Rule – Do unto others as you would have them do unto you • Professional Ethics – Would this be viewed as proper by a panel of ad professionals? • Personal Ethics – Would I be comfortable explaining this to my mother?

Advertising and Promotion Viewpoints
Provides information Provides information ((for )) for Proponent Proponent arguments arguments Encourages higher standard of living Encourages higher standard of living Promotes competition Promotes competition Helps new firms enter a market Helps new firms enter a market Creates jobs Creates jobs

More propaganda ((lies) than information More propaganda lies) than information ((against )) against Critic Critic arguments arguments Creates unnecessary consumer needs and Creates unnecessary consumer needs and wants wants Promotes materialism,, insecurity,, Promotes materialism insecurity and greed and greed

What is materialism?

Advertising and Children

Children's TV Children's TV Watching Behavior Watching Behavior

Children ages 2-11 Children ages 2-11 watch an average of watch an average of 22 hours of TV per 22 hours of TV per week and see 30,000 week and see 30,000 commercials per year commercials per year

80% of all advertising 80% of all advertising targeted to children targeted to children falls in four falls in four product categories: product categories: Toys, cereal, candy & Toys, cereal, candy & fast food restaurants fast food restaurants

Perspectives on Ads for Children

Advocates Argue That Children :: Advocates Argue That Children

Lack the knowledge and Lack the knowledge and skills to evaluate skills to evaluate advertising claims advertising claims

Cannot differentiate Cannot differentiate between programs and between programs and commercials commercials

Marketers Argue Children :: Marketers Argue Children Must acquire skills needed Must acquire skills needed to function in the to function in the marketplace marketplace

Must learn Must learn through socialization through socialization




• Promotes consumerism • Creates unrealistic expectations / Encourages dissatisfaction • Manipulates people ( applies knowledge of psychology ) • Propagates stereotypes ( gender , ethnic ) • Includes offensive messages ( sex , controversy , profanity ) • Glamorizes unhealthy products ( tobacco , alcohol , fatty food ) • Targets vulnerable groups ( children , uneducated ) • Makes misleading claims ( implies falsehoods without stating )

• Advertising that is simply untrue … • Illegal and completely unethical – Sony Pictures made up David Manning. Newsweek investigated and Sony’s marketing department admitted they made him up – Weight loss ads make “grossly exaggerated claims” – 40% made at least one claim that was almost certainly false, while 55% made a claim that was very likely false or lacked adequate substantiation

• Positive , general claims that cannot be proved or disproved because they are a matter of opinion • Legal in most countries • “ Advertising or other sales representations , which praise the item to be sold with subjective opinions , superlatives , or exaggerations , vaguely and generally , and stating no specific facts .” – Campbell’s Soup: America’s Favourite Food – Nothing outlasts the Energizer battery – Gillette: The best a man can get

• Advertising that does not literally contain falsehoods , but which causes consumers to make false inferences • Illegal if they are deemed / shown to produce inaccurate beliefs among a significant percentage of consumers (“ reasonable consumer ” standard ) • Strong risk of prosecution , penalties , remedial action • Examples – Strongly implied falsehoods – Critical missing information – Claim × knowledge interaction

Presenting a new product or service by cleverly creating and spreading “ buzz ” in an obtuse or surreptitious manner . Some examples… • Product placements: products placed within other conventional media forms, such as movies and music videos • Celebrity Marketing: Paying celebrity endorsements posing as unpaid testimonials • Viral Marketing: spreading the message via the Internet • Brand Pushing: hiring actors to approach unsuspecting people in real life situations and slipping commercial messages

Is it ethical to … • Conceal the fact that something is a paid commercial message (e.g. product placement )? • Conceal the fact that an individual has been paid to use or promote a product? (e.g. Seattle cell phone promo, chat room seeding) • Is offensive? • Fails to disclose that a product could be harmful? • Use an ad that portrays stereotypes? • Criticize a competitor’s product in your ad, even though you know it is basically the same as your own?

Does the ad... • Make unsubstantiated claims? • Make false or misleading claims? • Make unfair comparisons?
• Reinforce negative stereotypes? • Damage people’s self-image / create insecurities? • Target vulnerable groups? • Create false wants and false hope? • Manipulate people’s emotions? • Drive demand for unnecessary purchases? • Violate public standards of good taste?

• • Media Awareness Network • Advertising Standards Canada • Canadian Advertising Research Foundation

1. The intent should be to inform, not to discredit or attack competitors. Ads should emphasize the relative benefits of the featured product rather than the defects of rivals. 2. When a competitive product is named, it should be a significant competitor. For example, it would be unfair to state “costs 40% less than Brand X” when Brand X has an insignificant share, while other leading brands are comparably priced. 3. The competition should be fairly and properly identified, but never in a manner or tone of voice that degrades the competitive product or service. Products should also be shown in comparable background colour, setting, light. 4. Ads should compare similar properties of the product, feature to

5. If a competitive test is conducted, it should be done by an objective testing source, preferably an independent one. 6. The property being compared should be significant in terms of its value of the product to the consumer. For example, comparison of trivial ingredients, such as the salt used in the pickles served on a hamburger, should not be the subject of comparative comment. 7. Comparatives delivered through the use of personal testimonials should not imply that the testimonial is more than the experience of one individual unless that individual represents a sample of the majority viewpoint. 8. An advertiser cannot say through a third party testimonial what it knows to be untrue. (e.g., "I think this product is so much more effective than the leading brand".)

Economic Impact of Advertising

Effects on Consumer Choice Effects on Consumer Choice •Differentiation •Differentiation •Brand Loyalty •Brand Loyalty Effects on Competition Effects on Competition •Barriers to entry •Barriers to entry •Economies of scale •Economies of scale

Effects on Product Costs and Prices Effects on Product Costs and Prices •Advertising as an expense that •Advertising as an expense that increases the cost of products increases the cost of products •Increased differentiation •Increased differentiation

It is important to know the legal situation in each country :
• Advertising of jeans is prohibited in Malaysia (they are considered Western and decadent ) • Direct marketing is banned in some European countries (it is considered an invasion of privacy ) • A contest promotion might be legal in one country, but not in another

Advertising as Offensive or in Bad Taste

O b jection a b le e o e O b j cti n a b l p ro d u cts p ro d u cts

S exu a l S exu a l a p p e a ls s appeal

S h o ck a d s S h o ck a d s

Banned Dolce & Gabbana
ØIt is basically a Italian brand of cloths. Ø ØThere is no fun of assaulting woman in this advertisement. Ø ØIt has a negative impact on small children's. Ø

Banned Dolce & Gabbana

Banned Dolce & Gabbana
ØIs there any need of showing violence ? Ø ØWhy the female used in the advertisement is without cloths ?

Objectionable Ads
ØFalse claims to rebuild giant buildings. Ø ØSuffering of people are used to make advertisement of own services and products.

Objectionable Ads
ØIn this advertisement a terrorist attack on world trade centre are used to highlight the problem of poverty. Ø Øsuch kind of advertisements made by Mtv are objectioned as it affects the sentiments of people throughout world. Ø Ø Ø

Objectionable Ads
ØAlthough it is a advertisements to highlight the problem of hunger but as it affects the sentiments , it is banned.

Objectionable Ads

Objectionable Ads
ØIn this advertisement man die because of high current of battery. ØThis is horror for children’s & have bad effect on the psycology.

Objectionable Ads
ØThere is need of being nude in this advertisement. Ø ØIts has bad effect on the brain of children’s. Ø Ø Ø

Objectionable Ads
ØIt is against law because hurting animals is against law of India. Ø Ø

Objectionable Ads
ØThis is a advertisement of footwear . Ø ØKilling a man is not required . Ø ØThis advertisement have a double meaning.

Objectionable Ads
ØThis is a Ø advertisement of TIGER bear .

Objectionable Ads
ØThis is a advertisement of cigarette. Ø ØIt promotes bad habit of smoking. Ø ØWhat do mean by “spread a little happiness”? Ø ØIt create an illusion in the mind of people that cigarette smoking gives happiness. Ø

Sex Sells… Should it?
ØWhy advertisers use sex as a medium to increase sales of there products? Ø Øfemales should not be used as dummies. Ø Ø

Sex Sells… Should it?
ØThis is a advertisement of COFFEE. Ø Øwhat is the fun of being nude in this advertisement. Ø ØPeople cannot see such kind of advertisements in front of family. Ø ØThese kind of advertisements make a family difficult to watch t.v together.

Sex Sells… Should it?
ØWhy to be nude? Ø Ø

This is an ad for toilet paper

Objectionable Ads
ØThese kind of advertisements spoil mind of children’s. Ø Øwhy to make use of it to increase the sale of products. Ø

Does nudity in this ad help make a point?

Test Your Knowledge
Advertisers are using shock advertising to: A) B) C) D) E) Test their First Amendment rights Get ads noticed in the midst of clutter Make a statement against self-regulation Test the ethics of the advertising industry Act as advocacy ads for company management

Social and Cultural Consequences
D o e s a d ve rtisi g sin D o e s a d ve rti n g e n co u ra g e materialism? e n co u ra g e materialism? Does advertising make Does advertising make people buy things people buy things they don’’t need? they don t need? Is advertising just Is advertising just a reflection of society? a reflection of society?

Advertising and Stereotyping

Portrayal of women to reflect Portrayal of women to reflect their changing role in society their changing role in society

Gender Gender stereotyping stereotyping

Criticisms of Criticisms of Advertising Advertising With Regard to With Regard to Stereotyping Stereotyping

Portrayal of Portrayal of women as women as sex objects sex objects

Sexual orientation Sexual orientation

Ethnic Ethnic stereotyping// stereotyping representation representation

What is your opinion of this ad?

Is this woman portrayed as Is this woman portrayed as a sex object? a sex object?

Does this ad contain Does this ad contain cues that are sexually cues that are sexually suggestive? suggestive?

Does this ad present an Does this ad present an image of sexual image of sexual submissiveness? submissiveness?

Do TV Networks Have a Double Standard?


How women are portrayed in advertising

Dove Challenges the Norms of Beauty

Test Your Knowledge
Groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) are critical of advertising that: A) B) C) D) E) Portrays women in traditional sexist roles Contributes to violence against women Is insulting to women Stereotypes women Does any of the above

Subliminal Advertising

Subliminal- To reveal a message without a person knowing or being aware

Subliminal Advertising

Subliminal Advertising

Subliminal Advertising

We ’ re just as excited as you are

Subliminal Advertising

Do Advertisers Control the Media?

Advertising is the primary source of Advertising is the primary source of revenue for newspapers,, magazines,, revenue for newspapers magazines television and radio television and radio

Media’’s dependence on advertising Medias dependence on advertising for revenue makes them vulnerable to for revenue makes them vulnerable to control by advertisers control by advertisers

Advertisers may exert control over Advertisers may exert control over the media by biasing editorial the media by biasing editorial content,, limiting coverage of certain content limiting coverage of certain issues,, or influencing program issues or influencing program content content


U.S. Government Discourages Drug Use

Advertising Can Address Social Problems


Role of Advertising in the Economy

Makes consumers aware of Makes consumers aware of products and services products and services Provides consumers Provides consumers information to use information to use purchase decisions purchase decisions with with to make to make

Encourages consumption,, Encourages consumption fosters economic growth fosters economic growth

Self - discipline • In-house review procedures within agencies • Includes vetting by legal team to ensure claims are verifiable and unlikely to mislead Industry self - regulation • In the U.S., the National Advertising Review Council (a joint venture of the BBB and local advertiser associations) negotiates voluntary withdrawal of ads deemed to be deceptive


ØAdvertisers should make advertisements keeping in mind the ethics of advertisements .They must keep in mind that society is influenced by there advertisements ,so it is there responsibility to make responsible ads which a family can watch by sitting together. Advertisements has great impact on the mind of children's so, its should me made in such a way that it should increase there innovativeness & not to spoil there life by diverting there attention.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful