You are on page 1of 40

QS, MEASUREMENT,

DOCUMENTATION,
SMM

Contents:
Measurement process
Attributes of QS
Traditional preparation of BQ
Modern preparation of BQ
Standard Methods of Measurement

The Measurement Process


/ Quantity Take-of

The main purpose measurement


process is to produce quantity for
the measured works to prepare for
Bills of Quantities.
A Bill of Quantities is prepared for
tendering purposes.
Using BQ, contractor is able to price
the work with a minimum effort.
The quantification of the work is
done either by the main contractor,
subcontractor,
or
package
contractor.

Attributes of a Quantity
Surveyor
Ability to describe clearly, fully and precisely the
requirements of the designers and arrange the
Bills of Quantities.

??????
The contractors estimator can
quickly, easily and accurately arrive
at the estimated cost of the work.

Attributes of a Quantity
Surveyor

How to
achieve
? precisely
Ability to describe
clearly,this
fully and
the requirements of the designers and arrange
the Bills of Quantities.

The surveyor must be:

careful and accurate in making calculations


having

be

systematic and orderly mind

able to visualize the drawings and details

Divisions of bill
preparation

Traditionally, the preparation of BQ divides into 2 distinct stages:


1. The measurement of the dimensions and the
compilation of the descriptions from the
drawings
and
specification.
This
process
commonly known as taking-off .
2.

The preparation of the bill.


o This involves the calculation of volumes, areas, etc
(squaring the dimensions).
o Then followed by entering the descriptions and the
squared dimensions on the an abstract sheet
(abstracting) to collect similar items together and
present them in recognized bill order.
o From this abstract, the draft bill was written
(billing).

Development of bill
preparation

The utilization of computerized system is become more integrated for


direct input of quantities sand formulation of descriptions through the use
of standard libraries of descriptions, and the lengthy collating and the bill
preparation processes is carried out automatically.
WinQs
CatoPro
MasterBill
QS Elite
Snape Vector, etc

TOPIC:
Measurement & Bills of
Quantity

The Measurement Process


/ Quantity Take-of

The main purpose measurement


process is to produce quantity for the
measured works to prepare for Bills
of Quantities.
A Bill of Quantities is prepared for
tendering purposes (selection process
to contract an eligible contractor for the
project).

Using BQ, contractor is able to price


the work with a minimum effort.
The quantification of the work /
measurement / taking-off is done
either by the QS consultant (Client),
QS
of
main
contractor
or
subcontractor or Estimator.

The Measurement of Quantities for


Building Works

Main objective:
To produce the document for the list of quantities
(bills of quantity). The quantities meaning the
estimated amount of building works / trade works
for specific building elements.

The quantities needed to ensure the exact amount


of trade works in completing the building / project.

The measurement is based on the principles and rules


of measurement set up in manual of STANDARD
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT FOR BUILDING WORKS.

Standard Methods of Measurement (SMM)


Function:
To standardize the method of preparing the
measurement for building works and civil engineering
works.
Contains
of
rules
and
principles
of
measurement.

Malaysian Standard Methods of Measurement for


Building works. (SMM2) Institution of Surveyors
Malaysia (ISM) (adapted from SMM by RICS(UK)

Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement for


civil
engineering works (CESMM) CIDB
(adapted from
CESMM by ICE / FCEC(UK)

Standard Methods of
Measurement for Building
Works (SMM)

Set out rules for the


measurement and description of
building works.
SMM2 is a document that
provides not only a uniform basis
for measuring building work but
also embodies the essentials of
good practice.
Without using it, a set of rules
the quality of BQ can vary widely.

Malaysian Standard Method of


Measurement for Civil
Engineering Works (CESMM)

To be used in conjunction with the


Conditions Of Contract for Civil
Engineering Works.

Does not deal with the preparation of


BQ for mechanical & electrical
engineering work, building work or work
which is seldom encountered in civil
engineering contracts.

If any such work to be included in the


contract, such work shall be measured
in accordance with their respective SMM
and shall be stated in the Preambles
to the BQ.

The Bills of Quantities

The Bills of quantity prepared by Quantity


Surveyor based on measurement from the
construction drawings / building plans and
specification prepared by the designers/
engineers.

This document were itemized all the quantities


for each categories of works applied in
constructing the buildings. E.g. building works,
mechanical, electrical works, civil, structural
works, infrastructure works, etc.

The contractor will priced /estimate all the works


associated in completing the buildings during
pre-construction stage.

The Bills of Quantities

BQ is part of legal tender / contract document which will


be used to bind the agreement between the client and the
contractor in terms of:

Detailed of construction works to be done on-site


building works, infrastructure works, building services
works, water & sewerage systems, etc.

The materials used standard / quality

The standard workmanship /construction methods,

The needs / requirements of the builders on-site in


implementing the jobs onsite e.g. temporary offices,
storage, shelter / hostel for workers

Advantages of using BQ
According to Seeley (1997),

Avoids the need of for all of the tendering contractors


to measure the quantities of work themselves before
preparing an estimate. (if yes, wasteful duplication of
efforts and an increase in Contractors overhead).
BQ prepared in accordance to SMM ensure that an
adequate description of work in a recognized format is
given to all tendering Contractors and all tender on
the same basis.
The detailed breakdown of the contract sum (in BQ
format) permits proper financial management of the
contract.

Disadvantages of using BQ
The

absence of BQ leads to greater


variability,
increase
risk
in
estimating and consequently more
disputes.

The binding parties of a Contract

Client:
Client has intention to build buildingdeveloper, owner, funder, etc.

Contractor:
Contractor a person / company who has
expertise & experience to build building /
infrastructure
works,
water
and
sewerage system and install the
building services- electrical, mechanical.

Basic contents of typical contract


documents
Conditions

of contract
Contract drawings
Specification
Preambles
Bills of quantities
Schedule of rates

Purpose / Objectives / Roles


Project stages
PRECONTRACT
(before
official
contract
signed
between
client
contractor)

Tendering
stage

POSTCONTRACT
(contract
signed and
the selected
contractor
started their
works till
completion
stage)

Constructio
n stage

Explanation
To enable the contractor to tender to a project
& price the described works.
To control in ordering materials and
assessing the labour requirement for the
contract.

Provides basis for valuation of variation work


and adjustments for the final account.
Provides basis for valuation of monthly
progress payment referring to the working
progress on site.

Project
completed

After being priced, it provides a good basis for


cost analysis which subsequently will be used
in future contract especially for cost planning
works. (cost data)

Types of Bill of Quantity


Types of Bill

similarities

Fixed
price/ lump
sum

Approximate

Drawings
and
specification

The architects and engineers


prepare detail construction
drawings.
QS measures the quantities
in detail based on the
construction drawing
The QS prepare BQ based
on the measurement.
Virtual completion of the
design proceeds the signing
of the contract.

differences
Both the quantities and unit rates form
part of the contract
A detail breakdown of all the quantities is
shown in the BQ
The empty bill is supplied to the contractors
to tender / price the described works/ project.
The QS prepares BQ but subjected to later
adjustment.
Only unit rates form part of the contract.
The signing of the contract and beginning of
the project may proceed before the whole
design is complete.
The empty bill is supplied to the contractors
to tender / price the described works/ project.
The contractors are supplied with drawings
with full specifications.
No empty bill is supplied to the contractors.
The contractors prepare their own BQ.
Suitable for small project (less than
RM500,000)

Basic contents of Bills of Quantities


Preliminaries
Specifications

of materials and

workmanship
Preambles (only in Bill of Approx Qtty)
Measured works bill
Schedules of rates (only in Bill of Approx
Qtty)

Preliminaries
It must:
Contain a definition of the scope of works and
details of the proposed form of contract /
project.
Contain a detailed description of the
administrative mechanism / temporary facilities
to implement the contract / project.
Contain list of drawings and any special
instructions to the contractor highlighting
the method of pricing and presenting tenders and
other site information.

Specification
A

concise description of materials


and workmanship, standard or
quality of workmanship.
It must convey the architect and
engineers requirements.

Measured works

Includes detailed descriptions of building, mechanical


and electrical works presented in accordance with
SMM.
This enables the contractors estimator / QS to price
individual item of work.
This section also includes Prime cost sum (P.C) and
Provisional sum (Prov. sum)
P.C. sum used for works to be carried out by nominated
sub-contractors, statutory authorities or for
goods to be supplied by nominated suppliers.
Prov. Sum detailed or
the time bills are

used for works which cannot be fully


for costs which are unknown at
prepared.

Preambles

Define the rules governing the method of


measurement of the works and contain
instruction as to what is to be included within unit
rates and/or lump sum prices.

The preambles do not define the scope of works.

Schedule of Rates

Consists of unit of works that are grouped


according to trade and work content and are
presented in tubular form.

Each table is referred as schedule.

The schedule of rates comprises a number of


schedules that when combined, cover all items
of work likely to be encountered in the
contract.

Divisions of bill
preparation

Traditionally, the preparation of BQ divides into 2 distinct stages:


1. The measurement of the dimensions and the
compilation of the descriptions from the
drawings
and
specification.
This
process
commonly known as taking-off .
2.

The preparation of the bill.


o This involves the calculation of volumes, areas, etc
(squaring the dimensions).
o Then followed by entering the descriptions and the
squared dimensions on the an abstract sheet
(abstracting) to collect similar items together and
present them in recognized bill order.
o From this abstract, the draft bill was written
(billing).

Traditional Techniques of BQ preparation


Process

Description of works

Measuring /
taking-of

QS will analyze the drawings / plan received from


engineers / architect.
Prepare query list (if necessary)
Measuring from drawings and entering the dimensions
on to specially ruled dimension paper

Working up /
squaring

Calculating and totaling the area, length, volume,


numbers, item of the dimensions to obtain the exact
quantities for each measured item in the dimension
sheet.

Transfer to
abstract sheet

Collecting the totals form dimension paper on to an


abstract to produce a final total for each individual
description.

Billing

Reproducing the items from the abstract on to bill paper


in draft form ready for typing.

Preparation of billing
item

description

Qty

unit

rate

amount

1.0

Supply to site 125mm x 125mm


pressure treated timber piles of
6m lengths with provisions of
galvanized mild steel anti split
rail at both ends.

320

NR

RM100.00

RM32,000.00

2.0

Drive 125mm x 125mm timber


piles to required depth

1,920

RM12.00

RM23,040.00

3.0

100mm thick Grade 15 lean


concrete.

115

M2

RM18.00

RM2,070.00

4.0

Grade 35 concrete at brick


retaining wall

M3

RM180.00

RM1,440.00

5.0

Bringing to and removing from


site all plant required for this
section of the work

ITEM

RM1,800.00

RM180.00

Development of bill
preparation

The utilization of computerized system is become more integrated for


direct input of quantities sand formulation of descriptions through the use
of standard libraries of descriptions, and the lengthy collating and the bill
preparation processes is carried out automatically.
WinQs
CatoPro
MasterBill
QS Elite
Snape Vector, etc

SETTING DOWN
DIMENSION

Dimension Paper

Dimension are taken / measure from


the drawings by the taker-off.
Column 1 = timesing /
dotting on column (where
multiplication and addition of the
dimensions can be recorded)
Column 2 = dimension column
(in which the measurements are
set down as taken from drawings
and normally expressed in two
decimal point.
Column 3 = squaring column
(in which are set out the
calculated volumes, areas, etc)
Column 4 = description
column (in which is written the
description of the work to which
the dimensions apply.
Column 5 = Waste (in which
preliminary calculations /
sketches are made/ shown)

Units of Measurement

Cubic measurement = m3
Square or superficial measurement = m2
Linear measurement = m
Enumerated items Nr/ Nos.
Items

Expressions of
Measurement / Rules in
setting down the
dimension

The dimension are normally expressed to two decimal points.


It is important that the insertion of the horizontal lines
which determines whether the dimension is intended as linear,
superficial, or cubic measurement.

Rules in setting down the


dimension:
Timesing

Rules in setting down the


dimension:
Dotting-on

Rules in setting down the


dimension:
Alterations in dimensions
Reminder:
Deletions

correcting
are
encourage.
It

with
fluid
not

is best to nil
entirely and write
out
again
the
dimensions.

Rules in setting down the


dimension:
Anding-on

Note:
Anding-on ,
deductions shall be
in similar form of
dimension.

Rules in setting down the


dimension:
Deductions

Where a deduction is to be made,


the description is preceded by
Deduct which is often
abbreviated to Ddt.
An example as follows: