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Introduction to Microbiology

Maria Simatupang,dr
Dept. of Microbiology
Medical Faculty
USU

Microbiology defined

The study of organisms, where the individual cells of the

That is, we need to use specialized detection systems-usually

There are 2 main type main types of microscopes in use:

'microbe' can't be seen by the unaided human eye'

optical instruments termed microscopes.

Bright field microscope resolution about 0.2m


Electron microscope: resolution about 100 times greater

What is microbiology?

Bacteriology
Virology
Mycology
Immunology
Genetics

Comparison of medicaly important organisms


Characteristic
Viruses
Bacteria
&Helminth
Cells
No
Yes
Yes
Diameter(m)
0.02-0.2
1-5
(yeast)
(tropozoites)
Nucl.acid
either DNA
both DNA
or RNA
Type of nucleus
Ribosomes
Mitochondria
Outer surce
Motility
Method of
Replication

or RNA
none

or RNA

Fungi

Protozoa

Yes
3-10

15-25

both DNA

both DNA

or RNA

Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
+
+
+
+
+
protein capsid
peptidoglican
chitin
& lipoprotein envelope
membrane
none
some
none
none
not binary fission
binary fission
budding or
mitosis

Eukaryotic

flexible

mitosis

The microbial world


2 divisions Procaryotes& Eucaryotes
Procaryotes (refers
mainly to the bacteria)
No nucleus
Generally circular DNA
genome
+/- cell wall
Can have extrasomal
DNA
DNA without introns
Haploid (chromosome)
Binary division

The 2nd microbial division


Eucaryotes (includes
parasites and fungi)
Have nucleus
Other membrane
organelles
Diploid chromosomes
Mitotic & meiotic division
Have introns and exons

In clinical microbiology we have interest in both

Bacteria (procaryotic)
Eg Staph sp, Strep sp, E.coli, Mycoplasma sp

Fungi (eucaryotic)
Candida sp (single celled yeast), Aspergillus sp (multicelled)

Parasites (eucaryotic)
Giardia lamblia, Plasmodium sp (malaria)

Viruses
HIV, HBV, HBC, Rubella, Herpes (EBV, VZ, HSV)

A little History
Main events & people
Before about 1650 philosophers believed in
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
Significant discoveries altered this thinking.

Some of the key players were:

ANTON van LEEUWENHOEK, 1674

Mid 17th Century probably 1st to observe


bacteria under magnification

Although Robert Hooke first to observe microbes

through magnification- Its thought he saw protozoa


ie larger cells such as amoebae

Edward Jenner 1796- First successful


vaccination.
Relationship of cowpox to smallpox
Smallpox (virus)
30-40% mortality

Viremia followed by death


Last naturally occurring case in Africa, 1976.
Role of WHO in smallpox eradication
Possible because humans are the only
smallpox host.

LOUIS PASTEUR:
Demonstrated by the use of sterile media
that microbes were in fact

present in air,

And that air in does not create microbes

Fermentation

Used broths in flasks and S funneled


microbial trap experiments
Pasteurization

Joseph LISTER (1860)


Adopted the use of 'aseptic' techniques which lead to its
general adoption

ROBERT KOCH (1876)


Proved beyond doubt that specific
organisms were the cause of specific
infectious diseases.

Experiments with the very lethal disease


Koch and
wife
(especially
of cattle)
anthrax
1905-Nobel Prize

KOCHS POSTULATES

1. The same 'pathogen' must be present in every


case of the disease

2. The pathogen must be isolated from the


diseased host and grown in pure culture

3. The pathogen when inoculated into a


susceptible uninfected host causes the disease

4. The pathogen must be re-isolated in pure


culture from the inoculated animal

Griffith 1928 Experiment to determine which part


of a pneumococcus bacteria caused the disease.

1944 Genetic material is DNA, not the capsule,


not the cytoplasm. Provided the groundwork for
Avery and McLeods definitive work, as well as
for Watson and Crick (1953)
DNA
Structure
Fleming 1929 Penicillin (beta lactam ring in
outer layer of a bacteria is inhibited, making cell
wall synthesis impossible)

THANK YOU