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A beam is any long structural

perpendicular to the longitudinal

Theory of symmetric bending

of beams
significantly greater then
The length of the member is

the greatest dimension in the cross-section.

We are away from the regions of stress concentration.
The variation of external loads or changes in the
cross-sectional areas are gradual except in regions of
stress concentration.
The cross-section has a plane of symmetry.
The loads are in the plane of symmetry.
The load direction does not change with deformation.
The external loads are not functions of time.

Assumption 1: Squashing, i.e., dimensional
changes in the y-direction, is signif- icantly
smaller than bending.
Assumption 2: Plane sections before deformation
remain plane after deforma-tion. U = uoyy
Assumption 3: Plane perpendicular to the beam
axis remain nearly perpendicu- lar after
deformation. gxy 0 .
Assumption 4: Strains are small.
tany y= dv dx
u = y{dv(x)dx}

bending normal strain exx varies linearly with

y and has maximum value at either the top
or the bottom of the beam.
1/R= d v (x)/dx2 is the curvature of the
Deformed beam and R is the radius
of curvature of the deformed beam.
Assumption 5 : Material is isotropic.
Assumption 6 : Material is linearly elastic.
Assumption 7 : There are no inelastic

Location of neutral axis

Neutral axis i.e, the origin, is at the centroid of
the cross-section con- structed from linearelastic, isotropic, homogenous material.
The axial problem and bending problem are
de-coupled if the origin is at the centroid for
linear-elastic, isotropic, homogenous material
bending normal stress sxx varies linearly with
y and is zero at the centroid.
bending normal stress sxx is maximum at a
point farthest from the neutral axis (centroid).

Point Force and Moments

Internal shear force jumps by the value of the
external force as one crosses the external force from
left to right.
Internal bending moment jumps by the value of the
external moment as one crosses the external
moment from left to right.
Shear force & moment templates can be used to
determine the direction of the jump in V and Mz.
A template is a free body diagram of a small
segment of a beam created by making an imaginary
cut just before and just after the section where the a
point external force or moment is applied.

Symmetry in a structural system can be effectively
exploited for the purpose of analyzing structural systems.
Symmetry can be found in many real-life structural
systems (or, in the idealized model of a real-life structural
system). It is very important to remember that when we
say symmetry in a structural system, it implies the
existence of symmetry both in the structure itself
including the support conditions and also in the loading on
that structure. The systems shown in symmetric because,
for each individual case, the structure is symmetric and
the loading is symmetric as well. However, the systems
shown in are not symmetric because either the structure
or the loading is not symmetric.

Figure :Symmetric structural systems

Figure :Deformation in symmetric system

Let us look at beam AB, which is

symmetric about point C. The deformed
shape of the structure will be symmetric
as well. So, if we solve for the forces and
deformations in part AC of the beam, we
do not need to solve for part CB

To elaborate on this fact, we need to look at
the deformation condition at the point/line
of symmetry (or antisymmetry) in a system.
For a symmetric structure: slope at the
point/line of symmetry is zero.
For an antisymmetric structure: deflection
at the point/line of symmetry is zero.