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CE530

Mechanical Systems for


Buildings

Graciano
Emmanuelito
E. Dela Cruz III,RME
Basic
Concepts
of Thermodynamics
School of Mechanical Engineering
Mapua Institute of Technology

THERMODYNAMICS
Merriam

Webster: physics that deals with


the mechanical actions or relations of
heat.
A science that includes the study of
energy transformations and the
relationships among the physical
properties of substances which are
affected by these transformations.

THERMODYNAMICS:
ENGINEERING APPROACH
Mechanical

Engineers (arguably the


fathers of the field) are often interested in
converting heat (such as from a chemical
fuel) into work (shaft work, electricity).

Chemical

Engineers differentiate
themselves through a focus on phase
equilibria and reaction equilibria.

THERMODYNAMICS:
ENGINEERING APPROACH
Chemists use thermodynamics to

evaluate driving forces (a.k.a chemical


potential) for reactions or phase-change
processes.
Metallurgists

and geologists are


interested in solid phase equilibria.

WHAT ABOUT CIVIL


ENGINEERS!?!
A Civil engineer provided one of the most

useful power cycle used in the world

William John Macquorn Rankine

THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is the science that is

devoted to understanding energy in all its


forms, such as mechanical, electrical, and
how energy changes forms.
Thermodynamics is derived from the
Greek words therme, meaning heat, and
dynamis, meaning strength, particularly
applied to motion.
Heat strength

So what is Engineering
thermodynamics?
Engineering Thermodynamics is a branch

of thermodynamics in which emphasis is


placed on the engineering analysis and
design of processes, devices, and
systems involving the beneficial utilization
of energy and material.

TWO METHODS OF STUDY


(view points)
Microscopic or statistical thermodynamics

this is based on statistical behavior of


large groups of individual particles.

Macroscopic or Classical thermodynamics

concern with the overall effect of the


individual molecular interactions. The
macroscopic level is the level on which we
live.

Dimensions and Units


Dimensions are names that characterize

quantities. Examples include length, time,


force, mass, electric charge and
temperature.
Units are those arbitrary magnitudes and
names assigned to dimensions which are
adopted as standards for measurements.
Examples are feet, miles, centimeters.

Systems of units
The Systeme Internationale (international

system) also known as the SI units.


United States Customary System of Units

(USCS) , engineering units or English


units.

English Units

Horse power from


mine pony.

King Henry I

Yard descended from


standards as the
length from the thumb
to the nose of Henry I
of England.

Substances
Substance may be solid, liquid, vapor, or a

mixture which is performing the energy


transformation.

Pure substance
Mechanical mixture
Ideal gas or perfect gas

THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS
Thermodynamic System

is a threedimensional region of space or an amount


of matter, bounded by a arbitrary surface.

Open system is a system for which mass


as well as energy may cross the selected
boundaries.
Closed system or control mass is a
system for which no mass crosses the
boundary.
Isolated system when neither mass nor
energy crosses the boundary.

Parts of a system
Boundary may be real or imaginary, may

be at rest or in motion, and may change its


size or shape.
Surroundings, or the environment the
region physical space that lies outside the
arbitrarily selected boundaries of the
system.

Any thermodynamic analysis begins with a


selection of the system, its boundary, and its
surroundings.

Parts of the system

Properties
A property is a characteristic quality of the

entire system and depends not o how the


system changes state but only on the final
system state.

Extensive property depends on the size or


extent of the system: Volume, energy.
Intensive property independent of the size
of the system.e.g. temperature and pressure.
Specific property overall system is divided
by the mass

Phase and state


Phase is a quantity of matter that is

homogeneous throughout in physical


structure and chemical composition.
The state

of a system is the condition of


the system described by the values of its
properties.

Processes and cycles

A process is a change of a system from one


equilibrium state to another.
A system is in thermodynamic equilibrium if it is
not capable of a finite, spontaneous change to
another state without a finite change in the state
of its environment.
The path of a process refers to the specific
series of states through which the system
passes.
A thermodynamic cycle is a collection of two or
more processes for which the initial and final
states are the same.

Thermodynamic processes

Quasi-static or quasi-equilibrium process- a


process which proceeds in such a manner that
the system remains infinitesimally close to an
equilibrium state at all times.
Reversible process- process that can be
reversed without leaving any trace on the
surroundings
Irreversible or real process- includes friction,
unrestrained expansion, mixing of two fluids,
heat transfer across finite temperature
difference, electric resistance, inelastic
deformation of solids and chemical reactions.

Point and path functions


Point function or state functions : all

properties are state functions, since the


change in the value of a property depends
solely on the property values at the initial
and final states, and not on the path of the
process.
Path or process functions: quantities
whose values depend on the path of the
process.

Density, specific volume, specific


gravity
Density is defined as the mass per unit

volume.
Specific gravity (SG or RD) of a
substance: is the ratio of its density to that
of water at a specified temperature, such
as 4 or 20C or 60F.
Specific volume: the volume per unit mass
Specific weight: the weight per unit volume

Pressure
Pressure is defined as the normal force

per unit area acting on the boundary of the


system.

Absolute pressure: measured relative to


absolute zero pressure.
Atmospheric pressure
Gage pressure: pressure difference between
the absolute pressure and atmospheric
pressure.
Vacuum: negative gage pressure

temperature
A property of an object which determines

the direction of heat flow when the object


is placed in thermal contact with another
object.

Absolute temperature, Kelvin and Rankine


Arbitrary temperature, Celsius and Fahrenheit

Study units and


dimensions
Thank you.