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GROUP MEMBERS

AVOIDING
FALLACIES
To avoid fallacies you'll need to think carefully
about what you want to say, and use excellent
rhetoric to get others on your side. You'll need
to used great logical argument. You must
know Knowing about common logical
mistakes--called logical fallacies--that can
help you build an argument.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
To avoid fallacy every one need to avoid
the following step.
1. Argument to the man:
Don't attack an opponent's character as a
way of building up your argument. This is
called "argument to the man," and it's
considered a logical fallacy since
character issues may be irrelevant to the
argument you're making.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
EXAMPLE:
Khalid husaini novel the kite runner is
worthless because English is not his
maternal language.
Which is true, but that's not sufficient
reason for worthless.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
2: Faulty causation :
Faulty causation is one of the most
common logical fallacies, and it occurs
when you assume that just because
something happens after something else,
the second thing is caused by the first.
Example
It is dark now, which makes it very
dangerous. [It is not the dark that causes
danger].

AVOIDING FALLACIES
Drinking fresh water will keep you well .
[It may contribute, but it is not the only or
sufficient cause]
Money makes people arrogant.
[Not all people, and not always just money]

AVOIDING FALLACIES
3. faulty generalization:
Avoid jumping to conclusions. This is called
"faulty generalization," and it occurs when
you draw a conclusion from evidence that
is incomplete.
Jumping to conclusions is a dumb thing to
do because it means you don't actually
consider any other possibilities.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
EXAMPLE:
if you lost something, and you saw
someone with an exact copy of that thing,
you might automatically assume that person
stole it, but they might just have one
themselves. And if you accused them
wrongly, that would be a bad situation

AVOIDING FALLACIES
4. RED HERRING:
A red herring is something you throw into
your argument--such as an irrelevant line
of thought or an unrelated detail--in order
to distract your audience from other
aspects of your argument.
A Red Herring is a fallacy in which an
irrelevant topic is presented in order to
divert attention from the original issue.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
1.
2.

3.

This sort of "reasoning" has the following form:


Topic A is under discussion.
Topic B is introduced under the guise of being
relevant to topic A.
(when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A).
Topic A is abandoned.
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because
merely changing the topic of discussion hardly
counts as an argument against a claim.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
5. False analogy:
Avoid drawing a "false analogy."
Showing how two things are alike can be
a great way to build support for your
argument.

A false analogy is where an invalid


conclusion is drawn from a comparison
between two apparently similar
situations.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
Example:
Water is liquid and is good for you to drink.
Engine oil is also liquid and must therefore
be good to drink.
Just because water and engine oil are
analogous (similar) in one respect does not
mean they are analogous in another. This is
a false, and in this case highly dangerous,
analogy.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
6. Either/or fallacy:
The "either/or" fallacy occurs when you
suggest that the only alternative to your
own argument is something terrible.

AVOIDING FALLACIES
For example, George W. Bush
committed the either/or fallacy when he
claimed, "You're either with us, or you're
with the terrorists." He used this devise
for rhetorical effect, but in reality, there
are many options.