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The most important aspect of every

petroleum industry or energy sector is safety.


Various types of protective measures are
followed to give a safe environment.
1. Using relief devices
2. External insulation
3. Proper maintenance.

A Pressure Relief Device designed to

open and relieve over pressure and to


reclose and prevent the further flow of
fluid after normal conditions have been
restored

When inflow > outflow,

Inlet upstream control valve fails,


downstream control valve blocked.

1. Reclosing type
Conventional PRV
Balanced bellows PRV
Pilot operated PRV

2.Nonreclosing type
Rupture disk device
Pin actuated device

Conventional PRV:
Spring loaded PRV.
Its operation is directly affected by backpressure.
It can be used as relief,safety & thermal safety
valve.

Balanced bellows PRV:


Spring loaded PRV.
Incorporates a bellows for minimizing the effect of
backpressure.

Pilot operated PRV:


It is a pressure relief valve in which the major

relieving device or main valve is combined with and


controlled by a self actuated PRV(pilot)

CONVENTIONAL PRV
Conventional
Relief Valve

BALANCED BELLOWS PRV


Bellows
Relief Valve

FIRECASE

THERMAL EXPANSION
BLOCKED DISCHARGE
TUBE RUPTURE
GAS BLOW BY
CONTROL VALVE FAILURE

Fire is one of the least predictable events


which may occur in a gas processing
facility, but is a condition that may create
the greatest relieving requirements.
Formula selection varies with the system
and fluid considered.
Fire conditions may overpressure vaporfilled,
liquid-filled,
or
mixed-phase
systems.

If any equipment item or line can be


isolated while full of liquid, a relief valve
should be provided for thermal expansion
of the contained liquid.
Low process temperatures, solar radia
tion, or changes in atmospheric
temperature can necessitate thermal
protection.

The outlet of almost any vessel, pump,


compressor, fired heater, or other equipment
item can be blocked by mechanical failure or
human error.

When a large difference exists between


the design pressure of the shell and tube
sides of an exchanger, provisions are
required for relieving the low pressure
side.

In practice, the control valve may not fail


in the desired position.
A valve may stick in the wrong position, or
a control loop may fail.
Relief protection for these factors must be
provided.

Critical flow

Subcritical flow

Steam relief

STEP-1 Relieving pressure(P1)

STEP-1 Relieving pressure(P1)

STEP-1 Relieving pressure(P1)

STEP-2 Find critical flow


pressure & back pressure,
Pcf=P1*pressure ratio(Table7)

STEP-2 Find critical flow


pressure & back pressure
Pcf=P1*pressure ratio(Table7)

STEP-2 Find correction factor


from Napier equation(KN)
if P1 <= 1500 KN = 1
if 1500< P1 < 3200
KN = ((0.1906*P1)-1000) /
((0.2292*P1)-1061)

STEP-3 Find flow type critical


or subcritical
if, Pb < Pcf , flow is critical
Pb > Pcf, flow is sub-critical

STEP-3 Find the flow type


critical or subcritical
if, Pb < Pcf , flow is critical
Pb > Pcf, flow is sub-critical

STEP-3 Find Required orifice


area (A)
A = W/
(51.5*P1*Kd*Kb*Kc*KN*KSH)

STEP-4 Find the specific heat


ratio(k) & C(co-efficient),
(using Table-7 & Fig-33)

STEP-4 Find the specific heat


ratio(k) & pressure ratio
r=P2/P1
from this find F2, Co-efficient
of sub-critical flow. F2 using
Fig-35 or Eqn 18

STEP-4 Select the orifice


type(using API 526)

STEP-5 Find the required


orifice area(A),
A=(W/C*Kd*Kc*Kb*P1)*(T*Z/
M)^0.5

STEP-5 Find the required


orifice area(A),
A=(W/735*F2*Kd*Kc)*(T*Z/
(M*P1(P1-P2)))^0.5

STEP-5 Find the rated


capacity of selected orifice
area

STEP-6 Select the orifice


type(using API 526)

STEP-6 Select the orifice


type(using API 526)

STEP-7 Find the rated


capacity of selected orifice
area

STEP-7 Find the rated


capacity of selected orifice
area

PRVs sizing procedure


for liquid service
STEP-1
Relieving pressure(P1)
STEP-2
% Back pressure = (back pressure/set
pressure)*100
STEP-3
Backpressure correction factor Kw(from fig31)
STEP-4 (preliminary sizing)
Assuming no viscosity correction factor,
(Kv=1)
STEP-5
Find A, A=(Q/(38*Kd*Kw*Kc*Kv))*(Gl/(P1P2)) Gl=Specific gravity of liquid at flowing
conditions
STEP-6
Find AR (effective orifice type),
STEP-7 Find Re using AR calculated,
Re = Q*12700/(U*(A)^0.5)
STEP-8
Find Kv, using Re calculated,(Using graph
37)
STEP-9 Find actual orifice area,
using equation,
A=AR/Kv

Flashing & non-flashing

Subcooled region

Step1: Determine omega parameter


W = 9*((v9/v0)-1)

Step1: calculate the saturation omega


parameter
ws = 9*((v9/v0)-1)

Step2: Determine the type of flow


Pc >= Pa critical flow
Pc < Pa
sub-critical flow
Pc = nc*P0 critical pressure ratio, using
graph C.1(API-520)

Step2: Determine the sub-cooling region


Ps >= nst*P0 low subcooling region
Ps < nst*P0 high subcooling region
nst = (2*ws/(1+2*ws))

Step3: Calculate the mass flux


For critical flow, G=68.09*nc*(P0/(v0*w))
For subcritical flow, G=68.09*{-2[w*ln(na)
+(w-1) (1-na)]}^0.5*(P0/v0)^0.5/
(w*((1/na)-1)+1)

Step3: Determine the type of flow,


Low subcooling region, Pc >= Pa critical
flow
Pc < Pa subcritical flow
High subcooling region, Ps >= Pa critical
flow
Ps < Pa subcritical flow

Step4: Calculate the required orifice area


A=(0.04*W)/(kd*kb*kc*kv*G)

Step4: calculate nc using graph C.2(API520)


For ns<=nst, nc=ns
For ns>nst, using graph C.2(API-520)

Step5: Select the orifice area

Step5: Calculate the mass flux,


In low subcooling region, if the flow is
critical, use nc for n, G=68.09{2(1-ns)
+2[ws*ns*ln(ns/n)-(ws-1) *(nsn)]}^0.5*(P/vl0)^0.5/(ws((ns/n)-1)+1)
In high subcooling region, G=96.3*(pl0(PoP))^0.5

Step6: Find the rated capacity

Step6: Calculate the required orifice area


A=0.3208*((Q*plo)/(kd*kb*kv*G))

Conventional
The ratio between the backpressure & set
pressure or % gauge pressure is below 10% conventional type.
Bellows
The ratio between the backpressure & set
pressure or gauge pressure is 10% - 50% bellows type.
Pilot operated
The ratio between the backpressure & set
pressure or gauge pressure is above 50% - pilot
operated.

21%, for Fire case


10%, for other than fire case, vessels
equipped with a single PRV.
16%, for other than fire case vessels
equipped with multiple PRV.

PSV inlet line criteria


pressure drop <
3% of set pressure
PSV outlet line criteria
velocity limited
to 0.5 mach(API) or 0.7 mach (norsok)

WELL FLUID FROM PRODUCTION


HEADER

Design, pressure
Temperature
Operating, pressure
Temperature

= 68.9 barg
= 66C
=10-48barg
= 22C

HC GAS TO LP COMPRESSION
SYSTEM

GAS BLOW BY
PSV

INLET GAS
SEPARATOR-A/B
LT

SDV

LV

SDV

PW TO PW HYDROCYCLONE-A/B

STEAM SUPPLY

Shell
Design, pressure
= 13.5 barg
Temperature = 200 C
Operating, pressure = 9/8.1
1.1/0.461
Temperature = 181.3/179.8

Tube
13.5
200C

CONDENSATE
HEATER

21/80

STEAM CONDENSATE RETURN

CONDENSATE TO CONDENSATE
FLASH SEPARATOR

INPUT CONDITIONS:
Fluid
= gas
Hydrocarbon vapour flow = 8 MMSCFD
Mol wt..
= 17.85
Relieving temperature = 21.70C
Set pressure
= 13.5 barg or 195.8 psig
Back pressure
= 3.5 barg
Accumulation
= 10%
Compressibility factor Z = 0.969

Relieving pressure = set pressure + overpressure +


atm pressure
= 229.2 psia
Critical pressure = relieving pressure * pressure ratio
Calculated pressure ratio = 0.585(using Table 7, API
520)
Pcf = 229.2 * 0.58
Pcf = 129.116 psia
The calculated critical pressure > back pressure
(Pcf>Pb), so the flow is critical.
The back pressure < 50% & >10% of set pressure,
so the balanced bellows PRV can be used.
Critical flow formula,
A = ((v*(T*Z*M)^0.5)/
(6.32*C*kd*kc*kb*P1))

Where,
V = Vapor flow rate in SCFM
T = relieving temperature in R
Z = compressibility factor
M = molecular weight
C = coefficient (calculated using fig-33)
Kd = effective co-efficient of discharge
= 0.975, when PRV installed with or w/o
rupture disk
= 0.62, when PRV is not installed & rupture
disk is installed
P1 = relieving pressure in psia
Kc = combination correction factor
= 1, when rupture disk is not installed
Kb = capacity correction factor due to back

Designati
on

Effective
orifice
area
(square
incenses)

0.110

0.196

0.307

0.503

0.785

1.287

1.838

2.853

3.600

4.340

6.380

11.05

16.00

Required orifice area,


A = 1.11 in
A = 716.12 mm
Orifice selection,(using API 526)
For the required orifice of 1.11 in, J orifice
can be used
A = 1.287 in & 830.32 mm
Rated capacity, Vr =
((AA*6.32*C*kd*kc*kb*P1) /(T*Z*M)^0.5)
Vr = 6448 SCFM, 9.285
MMSCFD
Rating from API 526, Orifice = 2 J 3

It is an manual operation valve, used to


depressurise the plant or a equipment,
before it reaches the abnormal
condition(i.e., fire case..) & also for
maintenance purpose.

The main difference between PSV & BDV is the


mode of operation, BDV is operated by
pneumatic action (instrument air).
2-types of pneumatic action:
1. Fail open
2. Fail closed

1. Fail open:
Instrument air is sent continuously from
the top of the diaphragm to close the valve at
normal operating condition.
At abnormal condition instrument air
supply is closed to make valve open.
1. Fail closed:
Instrument air is sent from the bottom of
the stem, to make the valve open.
If the instrument air supply is stoped, then
the valve will be closed.

BDV should be considered where the large


equipment operating at a gauge pressure of
1700 kpa (250 psi) or higher. (ref API 521
5.20.1 page 57)
Depressuring to a gauge pressure of 690 kpa
is commonly considered when the
depressuring system designed to reduce the
consequences..

FIRECASE(hot blowdown)
ADIABETIC CASE(cold blowdown)

Two types of fire:


Jet fire
Pool fire

Jet fire can happen when combustible fluid in


pressurized system is released to atmosphere.
Jet fire can cause vessel failure in < 5min.
The heat flux of jet fire can be as high as 300
kW/m^2.
Pressure relief devices fails at jet fire.
Turned off through isolation & depressuring of jet
fire source.

Hydrocarbon fire can exceed 40ms in height.


To determine the vapour generation, it is
necessary to recognize only that portion of the
vessel that is wetted by its internal liquid and is
<= 7.6 m above the source of flame .
The heat flux of pool fire can be upto 100
kW/m.

Inlet line
200000 kg/ms
Outlet line

momentum(v) <
mach no 0.7

When pool fire exposes the unwetted wall of a


large vessel fabricated from ASTM A 515 Grade 70
carbon steel, it will take about 15 min to heat the
vessel walls to around 649C to reach its rupture
temperature.
It can be overcome, if the vessel is
depressurized within the 15 min heat-up time to,
50% of the initial pressure, then the time to
rupture increase to about 2-3hr. (Ref., API 521,
Section 5.20)

Adiabatic case is considered at low temperature.


Blowdown from the minimum ambient
temperature is done only if the gas inventory
may be contained for extended durations,
blowdown at minimum operating temperature is
done if minimum operating temperature is
lower than minimum ambient.
Vapour load is depends on liquid quantity &
liquid properties in the system.
Depressurisation from operating pressure to
atmospheric pressure.

Why restriction orifice is some distance


from blowdown valve?
RO
BDV

AxB

600 mm

Major pressure drop will take place at restriction


orifice during blowdown.
Joule-Thompson effect results fluid temperature
downstream of RO drops below zero C.
Decrease in temperature will leads to hydrate
formation.
This coldness will travel back to upstream of RO
& probably reaches BDV.
It potentially cause the upstream of BDV body
temperature drops below sub zero.
Moisture from atmosphere will freeze at the
BDV body & potentially cause the stem stuck at
its position.

Flares are categorised in two ways,


1.By the height of the flare tip,
Elevated flares
Ground flares
1.By enhancing mixing at the flare tip
Steam assisted
Air assisted
Pressure assisted
Non-assisted

These are the most common type of flare


used at present.
Elevated flare can prevent potentially
dangerous conditions at ground level
where the open flame is located near a
process unit.
Further, the products of combustion can
be dispersed above working areas to
reduce the effects of noise, heat, smoke, &

These are classified into 3types:


1.SELF-SUPPORTED.
Self supported stacks are
normally the most desirable.
These are the most expensive
because of greater material
requirements needed to ensure
structural integrity over the
anticipated conditions(wind &
seismic).

These are the least expensive


but require largest land area for
the guy-wire radius.
Guy-wire radius is equal to
one-half the overall stack
height.
Guyed stacks of heights of
180-250 m have been used.

These are used only on larger


stacks where self-supported
design is not practical or
available land area excludes a
guy-wire design.
These can be designed as high
as possible.
In locations where land is not
available, the multi flare stack
can be used.

Increasingly strict requirement


regarding flame visibility, emissions
& noise, enclosed flares can offer
the advantages of hiding flames,
monitoring emissions & lowering
noise.
Advantages:
Reduced flame visibility.
Minimal noise.
Minimal heat radiation due to
ceramic insulation.
Smokeless combustion.
Disadvantages:
Potential accumulation of a

Steam injected to the flame zone to create a


turbulence.
Improved air distribution allows the air to react more
rapidly with flare gas.
Another factor is the steam water-gas shift
interaction where the CO & H2O vapor react to form a
CO2 & hydrogen, which can easily burned.
Steam is injected through,
A single pipe nozzle located in the centre of the
flare,
A series of steam injectors in the flare,
A manifold located around the periphery of the flare
tip, to get a smokeless combustion.

High pressure air can also be used to prevent


smoke formation.
Less common because compressed air more
expense than steam.
It can be preferable were low temperature
applications.
Disadvantage:
The mass quantity required is approximately
200% > steam.
No water-gas shift reaction that occurs with
steam.

Pressure-assisted flares use the vent stream


pressure to promote mixing at the burner tip.
If sufficient vent stream pressure is available,
these flares can be applied to streams previously
requiring steam or air assist for smokeless
operation.

It is used where smokeless burning assist is not


required.
The non-assisted flare is just a flare tip without
any auxiliary provision for enhancing the mixing
of air into its flame.

FLARE DIAMETER
Flare diameter is sized based on the velocity
basis & also pressure drop to be considered.
It is desirable to permit a velocity of 0.5 mach
for a peak, short term, infrequent flow, with 0.2
mach maintained for normal condition for LP
flares.
Sonic velocity is desirable for HP flare.
Other factors:
Flare tip velocity should be maintained with
mach no 0.8 or higher for assisted & nonassisted.
Too low a tip velocity can cause heat &

Too low a tip velocity will leads to the


propagation of flame into the flare stack,
most common method to prevent propagation
of flame,
1. Install a seal drum at bottom of the flare
stack
2. continuous introduction of purge gas.
3. purge reduction seal

Continuous introduction of purge gas will

prevent the propagation of flame.


Purge gas rate can be reduced by the use of a
purge-reduction seal.
Purge gas rate calculated from this equation,
for lighter than air,
Q = 190.8*D^0.36* (1/y)ln(20.9/O2)
(Ci^0.65 * Ki)
standard criteria to limit the oxygen volume
fraction to 6% at a distance of 7.62m down the
flare stack,

FLARE STACK HEIGHT


Flare stack height is based on the radiant heat
intensity generated by the flame.
Flame radiation is considered to a point of
interest is to consider the flame to have a single
radiant epi centre. This is origin of total radiant
heat intensity level.
Effect of thermal radiation:
Investigations have been undertaken to
determine the effect of radiation on
human skin.

The quality of combustion affects the radiation


characteristics.
This radiation characteristics will affect the flare
stack height.
Smoke free operation can be attained by
various methods,
1. steam assisted
2. high-pressure waste-gas
3. forced draft air , etc..
Smokeless flares can be obtained in the form of
no operator shall allow the flare emissions to
exceed 20% opacity for more than 5 min in any
consecutive 2-h period (Ringleman 1
performance).

DESIGN BASIS:
Flare stack diameter is sized based on the
velocity basis by allowing the mach no of 0.5 for
a peak, short term, infrequent flow, with 0.2
mach for normal operating conditions for LP
flares.
Sonic velocity is appropriate for HP flares.
Flare stack height is based on the radiant heat
intensity generated by the flame.

AVAILABLE DATA:
Mass flow rate
= 340 MMSCFD, 302783
kg/hr.
Avg relative molecular mass = 17.85
Absolute pressure at flare tip = 101.3 kpa.
Flowing temperature
= 114C
Air temperature
= 20C
Wind velocity
= 9 m/s
Maximum allowable radiation = 3 kW/m2.
Mach no = 0.5.

Step 1: Flare diameter


Flare dia is calculated by fixing the mach no of
0.5.
Ma2 = 3.23*10^(5)*(qm/P2*d^2)*(Z*T/M)^0.5
d = 0.94 m
Step 2: Location of flame centre,
Isothermal sonic velocity = 91.2*(Tj/Mj)^0.5
= 430.1 m/s
Tip velocity, uj
= 0.5*isothermal sonic
velocity

To find out the horizontal & vertical distances from


flare tip to the flame centre we need 2 parameters,
LEL concentration parameter CL,
Jet & Wind thrust (dj*R).
LEL concentration parameter for the flare gas CL,
CL
CL

= CL*(uj/ua)*(Mj/Ma)
= 0.729

Parameter for Jet & Wind thrust,


dj*R = dj*(uj/ua)*((Ta*Mj)/Tj)^0.5
dj*R = 81.5

From fig: C.2


CL bar =0.729 & dj*R = 81.5

xc = 12 m

From fig: C.4


CL bar =0.729 & dj*R = 81.5

yc = 29 m

Step:3 calculation of the distance from flame centre to


the object being considered.
Design basis for this calculation,
The fraction of heat radiated F = ?
From thesis, emphirical equation relating Fraction of
heat radiated & jet velocity by Cook et al.. (1987)
follows,
F = 0.321-0.418*10^-3*uj
F = 0.091
Heat liberated
Q = mass flowrate * Heat of
combustion
Q = 3827002.2 kW
Maximum allowable radiation K = 3kW/m2.

Assume a grade level r = 22 m, with K of 3 kW/m2.


h = h + yc
r = r xc
D^2 = r^2 + h^2
(h+29)^2 = (95.6^2)-(10^2)
h = 66.4 m
The calculated flare stack height is h = 67 m.

Anything wrong
here?

Bellows plugged
in spite of sign
Failed
Inspection
Program

Signs of
Maintenance
Issues

Anything wrong
here?

Anything
Discharges
wrong
Pointing
here?Down

Will these
bolts hold
in a
relief event?

Anything wrong
here?

1. What is the maximum fire zone area to be


considered for fire case?
a. 150 m
b. 232 m
c. 300 m
1. Where depressuring for fire scenario should
be considered?
a. for equipments operating at a gauge
pressure of 205 psi
b. for equipments operating at a gauge
pressure of 250 psi

1. What is the flow opening % to be considered for


PSV sizing for check valve leakage?
a. 1 % of nominal dia of check valve
b. 20 % of nominal dia of check valve
c. 10 % of nominal dia of check valve
d. 15 % of nominal dia of check valve
1. What is the criteria should be followed for PSV
sizing for tube rupture?
a. (3/2) design pressure of HP side = design
pressure of LP side
b. (13/10) design pressure of HP side = design

What is the emission standards


following in India?