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You are on page 1of 29

Lecture 6

Development of Transmission Line

Models

Tom Overbye and Ross Baldick

Homework

HW 5 is Problems 4.9, 4.11, 4.13,

4.18, 4.21, 4.22, 4.24, 4.25 (assume

Cardinal conductor and look up GMR

in Table A.4); due Thursday 10/2.

HW 6 is problems 4.26, 4.32, 4.33,

4.36, 4.38, 4.49, 5.1, 5.7, 5.8, 5.10,

5.16, 5.18; case study questions

chapter 5 a, b, c, d, is due Thursday,

October 9.

2

To develop a model for transmission line capacitance

we first need to review some electric field concepts.

Gauss's law relating electric flux to enclosed charge):

A Dgda

= qe

where

D =

da =

A =

qe =

differential area da, with normal to surface

total closed surface,

total charge in coulombs enclosed

3

Law is most useful for cases with symmetry.

Example: Calculate D about an infinitely

long wire that has a charge density of q

coulombs/meter.

Since D comes

radially out,

integrate over th

cylinder boundin

the wire.

D is perpendicul

A Dgda D 2 Rh qe qh

to ends of cylind

q

D

ar where ar radially directed unit vector

2 R

4

Electric Fields

The electric field, E, is related to the electric

flux density, D, by

D = E

where

E = electric field (volts/m)

= permittivity in farads/m (F/m)

= o r

o = permittivity of free space (8.85410-12

F/m)

r = relative permittivity or the dielectric

constant

(1 for dry air, 2 to 6 for most dielectrics)

5

Voltage Difference

The voltage difference between any two

points P and P is defined as an integral

V

Egdl,

from point P to point P .

Voltage Difference

In previous example, E

ar , with ar radial.

2 o R

from the wire and collinear with the wire.

Define R to be the radial distance from the wire

q

on the path from points P to P , so Egdl

gdR

2 o R

Voltage difference between P and P (assuming = o ) :

V

R

q

q

gdR

ln

2 o R

2 o R

7

Repeating:

R

q

q

gdR

ln

2 o R

2 o R

charge have a higher voltage.

The voltage between two points (in volts)

is equal to the amount of energy (in joules)

required to move a 1 coulomb charge

against the electric field between the two points.

Voltage is infinite if we pick one of the points to be

8

infinitely far away.

Multi-Conductor Case

Now assume we have n parallel conductors,

each with a charge density of qi coulombs/m.

The voltage difference between our two points,

P and P , is now determined by superposition

V

R i

1 n

qi ln

2 i 1

R i

to conductor i, and R i the distance from P to i.

9

Multi-Conductor Case,

contd

n

If we assume that

qi 0 then rewriting

i =1

1 n

1

1 n

qi ln

qi ln R i

2 i 1

R i 2 i 1

We then subtract

qi ln R 1 0

i 1

R i

1 n

1

1 n

qi ln

qi ln

2 i 1

R i 2 i 1

R 1

R i

As we move P to infinity, ln

0

R 1

10

Since the second term goes to zero as P goes to

infinity, we can now define the voltage of a

point w.r.t. a reference voltage at infinity:

V

1 n

1

qi ln

2 i 1

R i

it is not inside one of the wires!

Since charge will mostly be on the surface

of a conductor, the voltage inside will equal

the voltage at the surface of the wire.

11

infinitely long conductors,

A, B, & C, each with radius r

B

and distance D from the

other two conductors.

Assume charge densities su

that qa + qb + qc =0

1

1

1

1

Va

q

ln

q

ln

q

ln

a

b

c

2

r

D

D

qa

D

Va

ln

2 r

A

12

Line Capacitance

For a single capacitor, capacitance is defined as

qi CiVi

But for a multiple conductor case we need to

use matrix relationships since the charge on

conductor i may be a function of V j

q1

C11 L

M

M L

qn

Cn1 L

q CV

C1n

M

Cnn

V1

M

Vn

13

We will not be considering the

cases with mutual capacitance. To eliminate

mutual capacitance we'll again assume we have

a uniformly transposed line, using similar arguments

to the case of inductance. For the previous

three conductor example:

Since qa = C Va

qa

2

C

Va

ln D

r

14

Bundled Conductor

Capacitance

inductance when there are n bundled conductors,

we use the original capacitance equation just

substituting an equivalent radius

Rbc

(rd12 L d 1n )

than r ' which was used for Rb in the inductance

equation

15

For the case of uniformly transposed lines we

use the same GMR, Dm , as before.

C

ln

2

Dm

Rbc

where

Dm

Rbc

d ab d ac d bc

( rd12 L d 1n )

16

Calculate the per phase capacitance and

susceptance

of a balanced 3, 60 Hz, transmission line with

horizontal phase spacing of 10m using three

conductor bundling with a spacing between

conductors in the bundle of 0.3m. Assume the

line is uniformly transposed and the conductors

have a a 1cm radius.

17

contd

1

Rbc

Dm

C

Xc

(10 10 20)

0.0963 m

12.6 m

2 8.854 1012

11

1.141 10 F/m

12.6

ln

0.0963

1

1

C

2 60 1.141 1011 F/m

2.33 108 -m (not / m)

18

Line Conductors

Typical transmission lines use multistrand conductors

ACSR (aluminum conductor steel

reinforced)

conductors are most common. A

typical Al. to St. ratio is about 4 to 1.

19

Total conductor area is given in circular mils.

One circular mil is the area of a circle with a

diameter of 0.001, and so has area 0.00052

square inches

Example: what is the area of a solid, 1

diameter circular wire?

Answer: 1000 kcmil (kilo circular mils)

Because conductors are stranded, the

inductance and resistance are not exactly given

by using the actual diameter of the conductor.

For calculations of inductance, the effective

radius must is provided by the manufacturer. In

tables this value is known as the GMR and is

usually expressed in feet.

20

Line Resistance

Line resistance per unit length is given by

R =

where is the resistivity

A

Resistivity of Copper = 1.68 10-8 -m

-8

Example: What is the resistance in / mile of a

1" diameter solid aluminum wire (at dc)?

-8

2.65 10 -m

m

R

1609

0.084

2 2

mile

mile

(0.0127) m

21

Because ac current tends to flow towards

the surface of a conductor, the resistance of

a line at 60 Hz is slightly higher than at dc.

Resistivity and hence line resistance

increase as conductor temperature

increases (changes is about 8% between

25C and 50C)

Because ACSR conductors are stranded,

actual resistance, inductance, and

capacitance needs to be determined from

tables.

22

Table A.4)

assume a geometric me

effective radius r

distance Dm of 1 ft. 23

Dm

X L 2 f L 4 f 10 ln

1609 /mile

GMR

1

3

2.02 10 f ln

ln Dm

GMR

1

3

2.02 10 f ln

2.02 103 f ln Dm

GMR

7

Term independent

depending on conductor type,

of conductor, but

but assuming a one foot spacing

with spacing Dm in

fee

24

2 0

1

XC

-m where C

Dm

2 f C

ln

r

Dm

1

6

1.779 10 ln

-mile (table is in M-mile)

f

r

1

1 1

f

r f

Term from table,

Term independent

depending on conductor type,

of conductor, but

but assuming a one foot spacing

with spacing Dm in

fee

25

Dove Example

GMR 0.0313 feet

Outside Diameter = 0.07725 feet (radius = 0.03863)

Assuming a one foot spacing at 60 Hz

1

7

X a 2 60 2 10 1609 ln

/mile

0.0313

X a 0.420 /mile, which matches the table

For the capacitance

1

1

6

X C 1.779 10 ln 9.65 104 -mile

f

r

26

Additional Transmission

Topics

Multi-circuit lines: Multiple lines often share a

common transmission right-of-way. This DOES

cause mutual inductance and capacitance, but

is often ignored in system analysis.

Cables: There are about 3000 miles of

underground ac cables in U.S. Cables are

primarily used in urban areas. In a cable the

conductors are tightly spaced, (< 1ft) with oil

impregnated paper commonly used to provide

insulation

inductance is lower

capacitance is higher, limiting cable length

27

Additional Transmission

topics

Ground wires: Transmission lines are

usually protected from lightning strikes

with a ground wire. This topmost wire (or

wires) helps to attenuate the transient

voltages/currents that arise during a

lighting strike. The ground wire is

typically grounded at each pole.

Corona discharge: Due to high electric

fields around lines, the air molecules

become ionized. This causes a crackling

sound and may cause the line to glow!

28

Additional Transmission

topics

Shunt conductance: Usually ignored. A

small current may flow through

contaminants on insulators.

DC Transmission: Because of the large

fixed cost necessary to convert ac to dc and

then back to ac, dc transmission is only

practical for several specialized applications

long distance overhead power transfer (> 400

miles)

long cable power transfer such as underwater

providing an asynchronous means of joining

different power systems (such as the Eastern

and ERCOT grids).

29

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