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A Novel Approach for the Detection

and Analysis of
Brain Tumour
Under the guidance of
Dr. Monica Jain
Prof. & HOD-ICE Dept.
GCET Gr. Noida
Submitted By:
Mayank Yadav (1109722024)
Shivanky Jaiswal
(1109722050)
Sandeep Maurya (1109722045)

*Brain Anatomy

*What is a brain tumor?

A group (mass) of abnormal cells that get


formed in the brain.
There are over 120 different types of brain
tumors, which makes effective treatment
complicated.
Mostly tumors are classified into two types:
(1)Malignant(cancerous) tumors
(2)Benign tumors

*Diagnosis of brain tumors

Diagnostic tools include: patient history, a


brain scan, CT scan, MRI.
MRI provides a much greater contrast
between the different soft tissues of the body
than computed tomography (CT) does.

*Motivation
Each

year more than 200000 people in world are


diagnosed with primary or metastatic tumour.
Brain cancer remains one of the most incurable forms of
cancer, with an average survival period of one to two
years.
Technology is useless if it cant even save the lives.
The project aims at early detection of the tumour, better
readability and understandability of MRI reports by
each individual on its own.
Automation of tumor detection is required because there
might be a shortage of skilled radiologists at a time of
great need.

*But what forces us to pursue


this project?????

Being an instrumentation engineer, accuracy


and precision are our ethics.

Through this project we aim to do the


computational study of MRI images in a precise
and accurate manner & to develop a better
control and detection of the tumour and its cure
at early stages.

*OBJECTIVE
*To

detect the tumour through


edge detection.
*Design the 2D structure of
tumour to calculate the area.
operations
*Pre-processing
followed
by
processing
operations
*Calculation of area of tumor
present in the skull region

*Methodology

Framework comprises five steps: image acquisition, preprocessing including edge detection, noise removal,
filtering, dilation. Processing stage comprises of
calculation of area thresholding and extraction.

IMAGE ACQUISITION: MRI scanned images are


displayed in a 2D matrix having number of pixels as its
elements.

Images stored in MATLAB in size of 256*256.

PREPROCESSING: comprises of noise removal


&image enhancement.

Linear filters like Gaussian averaging median filters


help in removing the salt and pepper noise.

EDGE DETECTION: Canny edge filters used for


outlining the edges of growing tumor.
2 purposes of canny filter:
Supress noise
Controls the amount of detail that appears in edge image

Global thresholding done through Otsu


method using graythresh function.

regionprops gives various properties


associated with the image like centroid
bounding box area etc.

2 variables made in use for storing the


images with and without tumor then
imsubtract gives the desired tumor image.

*Preprocessing code
% calling the function imread to read the image
* I= imread('Image11.bmp');
% imshow function called to display the image
* imshow(I);
* J = imnoise(I,'salt & pepper',0.02); % imnoise function called to image with noise
% imshow displays the image with noise
* figure, imshow(J)
% medfilt2 function performs 2-d filtering on image
* L = medfilt2(J,[3 3]);
* figure, imshow(L)
% edge detection by canny method
* [junk threshold] = edge(I, 'canny');
% scalar value to be multiplied by threshold value
* fudgeFactor = .5;
* BWs = edge(I,'canny', threshold * fudgeFactor); % bws stores the edge detected image
* figure,imshow(BWs), title('binary gradient mask');% imshow displays edge detected

image
% creates a structuring element for dilation
* se90 = strel('line', 3, 90);
* se0 = strel('line', 3, 0);
* BWsdil = imdilate(BWs, [se90 se0]); % imdilate function called to perform image
dilation
* figure, imshow(BWsdil), title('dilated gradient mask');
% imfill performs flood fill operations on
* BWdfill = imfill(BWsdil, 'holes');

* A= imread('image11.bmp');
* B=Imread('image7.bmp');
* I=B;
* [T,EM]=graythresh(I);

*Processing code
% EM effectiveness matrix,t normalized intensity value: both arguments of

graythresh
% g stores the thresholded image
* g = im2bw(I,2*T);
* bg_wT=bwareaopen(g,2*500); % bwareaopen function called to removes from binary image specified connected
components
% variable stores the image without tumor
* bg_withoutT=bwareaopen(bg_wT,2*1000);
% imsubtract called to subtract one image from another
* tumor=imsubtract(bg_wT,bg_withoutT);
* tumor=imfill(tumor,'holes');
% measures set of properties associated with image
* r=regionprops(tumor);
% cat argument concatenates the objects
* cent=cat(1,r.Centroid);
% bounding box creates a box around the specified image
* bb=cat(1,r.BoundingBox);
% area argument calculates the area of image in bounding box
* Area=cat(1,r.Area)
* imshow(I)
* hold on
% loop for creating and defining the bounding box
* for k=1:size(bb,1)
* rectangle('position',bb(k,:),'edgecolor','r','linewidth',2)
* plot(cent(k,1),cent(k,2),'g+')
* end
* figure,imshow(tumor);
* bw=imfill(bw,'holes');
* Main_Area=bwarea(bw);

* Input image 1 and its outputs

*Results

Input image 2

* Input image 3

* Input image 4

*Calculations

Input 1

* Total skull area:33635.125


* Tumor area:1933
* Percentage of area occupied by tumor:5.7%

Input image 2

* Total skull area:35711.125


* Tumor area:1716
* Percentage of area occupied by tumor:4.8%

* Input image 3
*Total skull area:32269.875
*Tumor area:1095
*Percentage of area occupied by tumor:3.39%

* Input image 4
*Total skull area:24306
*Tumor area:2053
*Percentage of area occupied by tumor:8.4%

*Conclusion

* MRI is a critical part in many researches.


* In this work, the brain image testing process has been done.

This method has given the reliable result. If the brain image
has the tumor region, the further processing steps are
needed to be done.
* The edge detection operator technique will detect the size,
shape and boundary extraction. The proposed work
provides a new algorithm for brain tumor which is more
efficient. The accurate and precise detection is crucial
otherwise the wrong identification of disease can lead to
several consequences.
* As diagnosis of tumor is a complicated task; therefore
accuracy and reliability are always assigned much importance.
As shown earlier, various MRI results have been taken and
tested, which shows the clear understanding of accuracy and
precise result.

Thank you!!!!!!