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Welcome

TO A PRESENTATION ON
INSULATION- CO-ORDINATION
BY
A.SAI PRASAD SARMA

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION

1)
2)

3)
4)
5)

It is selection of suitable insulation levels of various components


in any electrical system and their rational arrangement.
It is required to ensure
Insulation shall withstand all normal stresses and majority of
abnormal ones
Efficient discharge of over voltages due to internal /external
causes
B/D shall be only due to external causes
B/D shall be at such places where least damage is caused
Safety of operating personnel and public.

Determination of Insulation
coordination contd.
Steps in the determination of Insulation
coordination
Determination of live Insulation
Selection of BIL and Insulation levels of
other equipment
Selection of Lightning Arrestors.

Definition:- Flash over voltages


Dry flash over voltage (Dry for) Power frequency voltage.
Which will cause flashover of the Insulation.
Wet flash over voltage:- Power frequency voltage.
Which will cause flash- over when sprayed with water of
a resistance 9000-11000 ohm-cms drawn from a source
of supply at a temp within 10c of the ambient
temperature in the neighbour- hood of insulation under
testing and directed at an angle of 45 the volume of
water being equivalent to precipitation of 0.305 cm /min

Definition:- Flash over voltages


Impulse flash over voltage: The voltage which will cause flash over of
an Insulation When subjected to a
1.2x50s impulse
(British standards1x50 sec)
(American standards 1.5 x 40sec)

Definition:- Flash over voltages


Basic Insulation level :The crest voltage of standard wave that will not
cause flashover of the insulation is referred to as
Basic insulation level
(Basic impulse insulation voltages are levels
expressed in impulse crest voltage with a
standard wave not longer than 1.2x50 s (Indian
standards)
Equipment insulation as tested shall be equal or
above the BIL

Impulse spark over volt- time


characteristic

This characteristic is obtained by plotting


--Time which elapses between the moment the voltage
wave is applied and the moment of spark over -- on
abscissa
-Voltage at the movement of spark over
(i) Occurring on the wave front
(ii) Occurring on the wave peaks
(iii) Crest of the voltage for spark over
occurring on the wave tail

Impulse spark over volt- time


characteristic -contd.
This characteristic is established by
means of a 1/50 impulse wave
A line drawn meeting the three B/D values
is the characteristic
Proper insulation co-ordination will ensure
that the voltage time Curve of any
equipment will lie above the volt -time
curve of the protective equipment, say,
Lightning arrestor.

LINE INSULATION

Extra high voltage line can be made lightning


proof by
1 Efficient shielding
2 Low tower footing resistance equal to or less
than 10 ohms
shielding angle
Transmission lines up to 220kV
30
400 kV at and above
20

Line insulation -contd.


Line insulation shall be sufficient to
prevent a flashover from the powerfrequency over voltages and Switching
Surges.
It shall take into consideration the local un
favourable circumstances which decrease
the flash over voltage (rain, dirt, Insulation
pollution etc.,)

OVER VOLTAGE FACTORS


Line
Voltages

Switching
Surge flash
over

Power frequency flash


over (Dry & Wet)

220kV
6.5 V pn
0.3
400kV
3.3
5.0 V pn
Vpn = Phase to Neutral Voltage (rms)
Add one or two more Insulators for each string.

OVER VOLTAGE FACTORS


Contd.
-To take care of one disc in the string
becoming defective.
-Facilitate hot line maintenance
Up to 220 kV Line 1 disc for each
string
400 kV Line 2 discs for each string

FLASH OVER VOLATAGE(FOV)


OF DISCS 254 X 145 mm
NO
DRY FOV
OF
DISCS

WET FOV Impulse


( kV rms) FOV
(Standard
full wave)

9
10
14
15
25

375
415
565
600
900

540
590
785
830
1280

860
945
1265
1345
2145

RECOMMENDED INSULATION
LEVEL OF LINE
Normal Vpn
Switching over No of
system In kV
volt. (Wet) kV * discs
Voltage (Vph/3)
required
132kV 76
76 x6.5=495
5
220kV 127
127x6.5=825 9
400kV 231
231x5=1755
13
* Compared with Impulse FOV (Value)

RECOMMENDED INSULATION
LEVEL OF LINEcontd.
Normal
system
Voltage

Vpn
In kV

Power freq.
over volt
(wet)
(kVrms)

No. No. of As per


of
discs practice
discs recom.
req.

132kV

76

76x3=228

9/10

220kV

127

127x3=381

10

11

13/14

400kV

231

231x3=762

20

22

23/24

Tower forting resistance 10ohms


severest lightning discharge 50kA (rms)
Impulse strength of
Insulation=2x50x10x10=700kV
As per the table for 7 discs, the impulse
FOV ( kVp =695kVp)
For better performance tower forting
resistance shall be brought down.
For 132kV best is 7 ohms

Co-ordination of line Insulation and


Sub-Station Insulation

1
2

Line Insulation is not directly related to the


Insulation of equipment within the Sub-Station.
Impulse flash over voltage of line Insulation
determine the highest surge voltage that can
travel into the sub-station.
Current through lighting arrestor can be
calculated from
Surge impudence of line
Surge voltage arriving over the line

Co-ordination of line Insulation and


Sub-Station Insulation
Discharge voltage of the LA on that
current is the basic protective level of the
substation equipment.
Discharge voltage across LA varies with
surge current.

BASIC INSULATION LEVEL AS


PER IS (2165 1962)
Nominal
system
volt kV
(rms)

Highest
system
volt kV
(rms)

Impulse withstand
volt kVp for test

One minute power


frequent volt kV (rms)

Full
Reduced
insulation insulation

Full
Reduced
insulation insulation

132 kV

145

650

550

275

230

220 kV

245

1050

900

460

395

400 kV

420

1550

680

1425

630

Reduced insulation is used where system is effectively earthed.

INSULATION LEVELS OF
EQUIPMENT
Transformers, Isolators, Instrument
Transformers are manufactured for the standard
Insulation level.
Some times transformers, are manufactured for
one step lower insulation level for the sake of
economy. (LAs will be designed for a still lower
level)
Where LAs are provided right on the top of the
transformer, some of the equipment may lie well
out side the protective zone of the LA.

INSULATION LEVELS OF
EQUIPMENT
Protective zone is determined based on
A
With stand level of equipment
B
Discharge volt of LA
C
Distance between LA and equipment.
Such equipment shall be designed for one step
higher Bill.
Generally BILL of substation equipment other
than transformer are designed for10% higher
BIL than that of Transformer .

INSULATION LEVELS OF
EQUIPMENT
BIL of Open poles of a disconnect switch
shall be 10 to 15% higher than that
provided between poles and earth.

EHV system must be designed to operate under


stresses associated not only with normal
operating power frequency voltage but also
those caused by transient over voltage.
These transient over voltage rise principally
from lightning over voltage and switching
operations
The former is predominant in system at 100 kV
and below.
Switching over voltage are of concern in system
at 220 kV and above

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION
Over Voltage
Let Un = line to line normal RMS voltage
Let Um = Rated highest system voltage rms line
to line
2 Un / 3 = Peak of rms voltage phase to
ground for nominal system voltage
2 Um / 3 = Peak of rms voltage phase to
ground voltage for highest system voltage
Any voltage higher than 2/ 3 Um is called
over voltage

Over voltages

In addition, temporary over voltages also occur


at power and harmonic frequencies at times for
considerable time under certain conditions.
The insulation strength and characteristics of
various components of a system (including
those of voltage limiting devices) must be
selected relating to those stresses.
i. To reduce frequency of supply interruptions
ii. To reduce component failures

The selected level of voltage shall be low


enough to be operationally and economically
acceptable

IEC 71 covers Insulation Co-ordination


IEC -71- Part-I definition, principles
IEC 71- Part II Guidance for selection of rules
(i) electric strength of the plant, (ii) electric
strength of LAs or protective spark gaps
IEC 71-3
Phase to phase insulation co-ordination
Complimentary to part I & II
Standard phase to phase insulation level for voltages up to
and above 300 kV
Voltage stresses In service and clearances in air

Data required:
1. Field data on lightning induced and
switching surges appearing on the
system
2. Establishing insulation strength of
various insulating components of the
system through lab tests

Causes of over voltage:


Phase to earth faults ( it is assumed that resulting
temporary voltages will not exceed
1.4 Pu for solidly earthed networks
1.7 Pu for resistance earthed networks
2.0 Pu for reactance earthed networks

Load rejection (supplying capacitive current through a


large inductive reactance ex. A smaller generator
connected to a long cable or over head line)
Ferro resonance ( inter change of stored energy for
series or parallel combination of inductive and capacitive
reactance)

Causes of over voltage: contd.


Ferranti effect: (receiving end voltage greater
than sending end voltage under no load or light
load conditions)
By care full design and natural earthing
sustained over voltages involving resonance and
arcing ground faults are eliminated
Below 145 kV method of earthing will normally
determine the level temporary over voltages.

Switching surges
They are of short duration and irregular form
Typical switching impulse standard form is the 250/2500
sec. ( time to crest/ time to half value way)
The magnitude of internally operated switching surges is
related to the system operating voltage
In a system where CBS are not subjected to multi re
striking the switching surges will rarely exceed 3 pu
2.5 pu would be typical maximum based on which the
discharge duty of LA is assessed
However in systems above 300 kV, it may be necessary
to suppress maximum switching surges to 2 pu or less
by the installation of a shunt reactor and/or closing
resistors on the circuit breakers

Resonance effects

For voltage level below 300 kV.


Resonance effects occur
i. When switching transformer
ii. When switching cable and overhead line
combination
iii. Between lumped capacitive and reactive
elements and over head lines
iv. Charging long lines without shunt reactor
compensation

Resonance effects-- contd


Ferro resonance encountered on a transformer
feeder greater than 5 to 10 Km in length
When one feeder/transformer on a double circuit
is switched out but parallel feeder remains
energized, the dead circuit draws energy by
captive coupling from the parallel line circuit
which resonates with transformer impedance at a
sub harmonic frequency
(operation procedure such as opening the line
isolator at the transformer end on the
disconnected circuit will eliminate the problem)

Mode of action of flash over on a


line

A lightning flash can impress over


voltage on a over head line by
a) Induction when it discharges to earth close
to line
b) By direct contact on the line either to the
earthed structure or to the phase conductor

Induced Voltage Surge


A close flash to ground up to about 14 m away
can induce a voltage rise on phase conductors
The highest amplitude normally associated is
in the region of 200 kV
Significant in case of low voltage lines
At 11 kV estimated that it accounts for some
90% of all faults
Little significance on lines of 275 kV and above

Direct stroke
A direct stroke can be to the earthed tower
top or on phase conductor
Stroke on earthed lower top, for
transmission of shielded design, is
innocuous
Raise in potential caused by passage of
current through tower impedance to earth
will be less than with stand strength of line

Direct strokecontd.
However the rise in potential can be
severe and exceed with stand capability, if
Tower footing resistance is high
Rate of rise of current exceeds a certain level

Flashover may occur


Through the system voltage, losses is the
frequency of flash over

Direct strokecontd.
Direct stroke on phase conductor
May occur if there is a shielding failure i.e. stroke avoids
earth wire and lands on line conductor.
Discharge current flows equally in both directions.
Impedance to earth is half the surge impedance (Z0) of
the conductor. IN a 400 kV line Z0 = 175 ohms
Voltage rise is sufficient to cause failure of line insulation
Minimum critical current for flash over Ic = 2 V I0
Z0
VI0 = minimum flash over voltage for 1/50 Wave

At flash over the impedance through which the discharge


current flows drops abruptly from Z0/2 to impedance of
tower, x -arm, tower footing

Surge propagation:
Surge waves are propagated at the velocity of
light along the conductor
On arrival at substation, equipment there in get
stressed.
Rod gaps and surge arrestors provide necessary
protection
Waves
are
subjected
to
considerable
attenuations due to losses both in the conductor
(ohmic losses) and corona losses

Lightning discharges
Clarification of lightning discharges
stroke (A)
stroke (B)
Stroke (A) : produced by the charged cloud which induces
a charge on the stationery objects such as high buildings
etc.
Charge distribution causes concentration of potential at the
top most point
Electro static stress being great at that point ionization of
surrounding atmosphere takes place
Dielectric strength of surrounding air decreases giving an
easy path to lightning stroke.
Decrease in dielectric strength of surrounding air takes
considerable time

Lightning discharges
Stroke B:
A, B & C are three clouds with A and C positively
charged and B negatively charged
When there is a stroke between (A) and (B) the charge
on (C) becomes free and immediately and
indiscriminately strikes on any object on the ground
For stroke (B) there is no time lag
Stroke (B) may completely ignore highest building and
strike bare ground.
No protection can be arranged against stroke `B`
Stroke `A` can be made safe by channelising the charge
through a lightning conductor placed on the top of the
building

Static induced charges


An over head conductor accumulates statically
induced charge when a charged cloud comes
above
When the cloud is swept away charge on
the conductor is released
The charge travels on either side giving
rise to two travelling waves
The earth wire does not prevent such
surges

Lightning strokes
Over voltage due to lightning strokes
surge impedance of the line = Zs
Discharge current
= Id
Over voltage due to direct stroke = Vd = Id x Zs
However current travels in both directions
over voltage = Vd = Id x Zs
2
when lightning strikes over earth wire or a tower
Over voltage = Id x Ze + Lc di
dt
Ze = impedance of earth wire
Lc is the inductance of the line conductor

Protection against lightning


1. Protection of transmission lines
from direct strokes
2. Protection of power stations and
substations from direct strokes
3. Protection of electrical equipment
from traveling waves

Protection of transmission lines


Against the direct strokes :
Most harmful
Effective protection required shielding to
prevent lightning from striking the electrical
conductors.
There shall be adequate drain facilities so
that the charge can be grounded without
affecting Insulators or line conductors.

Design of transmission line against


lightning

Design shall consists of


(a) General wire of adequate mechanical strength to provide
shielding for line conductor. They shall also be non corrosive
Resistance of ground wire shall be low for better protection
against direct stroke.
(b) Adequate clearance between
1. Line conductor and tower
2. Line conductor and earth
3. Clearance between line conductor and ground wire all
through the span including mid Span or point of lowest sag.
(c) Tower footing resistance shall be low
(d) Angle of protection (shielding angle) angle between the
normal passing through the ground wire and line joining the
supported center points of outer conductor and ground wire.
It shall be 30 for 132 & 220 kV lines 20 for 400 kV lines

Effect of number of earth wires


In the absence of a ground wire:
When there is a charge cloud over a transmission line
without any ground wire
There will be two capacitances
(1) Between cloud and conductor C2
(2) Between conductor and earth C1
Induced voltage on the line
V L1 =
C1
x Ec
C1+C2

When ground wire is present it increases capacitance


between conductor and earth i.e. C1 Decreases induced
voltage on the line.
It is observed that presence of a ground wire reduces
induced voltage on line to half.
For two ground wires the induced voltage comes down to
one third
Presence of two ground wires also provides better shielding

Earth wires
Disadvantages with ground wire:
(a) higher line cost
(b) Probable direct shorting between line
conductor and ground wire when the later
gets cut
In 400kV system transmission line towers
will have twu earth wires.

Alternative method of line


protection
Even after providing ground and reducing the
likely induced voltages, harmful voltages can still
develop
Lightning arrestors act as additional protective
devisees by by-passing the surges to ground
Protector tube is a fiber tube with electrode at
earth end.
Fitted directly below the conductor
The arc type electrode on the top of the tube
forms a series gap with conductor

Alternative method of line


protection
The lower electrode is solidly grounded
In case of surge on the conductor, an arc
develops between conductor and top electrode
of the tube.
Arc shifts within the tube and vaporises some of
the fiber of tube wall to emit gases which will
quench the arc
This tube successfully prevents re-striking
The break down voltage of tube shall be less
than flash over voltage of the insulation.

Protection against traveling waves


The traveling waves cause the following damages:
i.

High peak voltage of surge may cause flash over in


the internal winding or external flashover between
the terminals of the equipment.
ii. steep wave front may cause internal flash over
between turns of the transformer
iii. Steep wave front resulting into resonance and high
voltage may cause internal or external flash over
causing building up of oscillations in the equipment

Protective equipment : LAs and Surge


diverters
They are connected between line and earth

Action of the Surge diverter


A traveling wave reaches surge diverter and
attains a prefixed voltage
A spark is formed across the gap
The diversion provides a low impedance path to
earth
The surge impedance of the line limits the
amplitude of the current flowing to earth to prevent
break down of insulation
Important aspect is that the surge diverter shall
provide low impedance path to earth only when
traveling surge reaches the surge diverters

Action of the Surge diverter


It shall absorb any current during normal
operation for over voltage surges.
It means that it shall not function at power
frequencies but function only when abnormal
frequencies are applied
When there is a discharge through them they
shall be capable of carrying the discharge current
for some time interval.
After the over voltage discharge it must be
capable interrupting normal frequency current
from flowing to earth as soon as the voltage
reaches below the break down value

Switching over voltage protection in


a substation
Operation of breakers causes transient over voltages
Over voltage value varying between 1.1 Pu to 6 Pu based on
switching duty and the type of circuit breaker
Over voltage occurs mainly due to exchange of energy between
system inductance LI2 and system capacitance CV2
Over voltage occurs during the opening of circuits and closing of
long EHV lines
Most severe over voltages occurs during the closing unloaded
transmission line
Preventive measure
Provision of Pre insertion resistors ( 400 to 800 ohms per
phase)
Simultaneous closing of lines at both ends
Using shunt reactors, surge arresters etc.

Switching Over voltages in Substations


Switching duty of
C.B.

Applications and
Remedial Actions

Phenomena

Opening of capacitor
bank currents, cable
charging circuits, filter
banks

Switching of shunt
Re strike in circuit
capacitor banks used for breakers giving over
p.f. correction.
voltage.
- Use of re strike free C.B.
for capacitor switching
duty.

EHV lines
* Closing unloaded
lines
* Closing charged
lines
* Auto re closing of
C.B.

* Long EHV transmission.


- Use of pre-closing
resistors with circuit
breakers. Use of lightning
arresters. Use of shunt
reactors in transmission
lines.

Traveling waves
travel to and fro
giving rise to a
switching surge.

Methods of Reducing Switching


Over Voltages
Switching operation
causing over voltage

Method to reduce
switching over voltage

Energising an uncharged
line

High voltage shunt reactors


are connected to line to
reduce power frequency
over voltages.

Elimination of trapped
charged on the line

Line shunting after opening


by means of earthing switch

Reduction of current
chopping

Opening resistors
( Resistance switching with
CB) used only with ABCB

Methods of Reducing Switching


Over Voltages
Switching operation
causing over voltage

Method to reduce
switching over voltage

Reducing the switching over


voltages due to closing

Single stage pre closing resistor


insertion with CB.
Two stage pre closing resistor
insertion with CB.
Closing resistors in between circuit
breaker and shunt reactor

Reducing switching over voltages


by improved switching sequence

Synchronous switching of three


poles.
Simultaneous operation of circuit
breakers at both ends of line,

Use of surge arrestors

While closing of line


While disconnecting reactor

Rod gaps or coordinating gaps


They are used on insulators, equipment and
bushings
Conducting rods are provided between line
terminal and earth terminal with an adjustable gap
( Air insulation)
Rods are of 12mm dia approx.
The gap is adjusted to break down at about 20%
below the flash over voltage of the insulation.
Spark over causes dead Short circuit
Voltage of phase with respect to ground falls very
low
The rod gaps are no more used consequent to
development of surge arrestors.

Over-voltage in Network and Remedies


Phenomena Causes

Effect

Remedies

Surges

Lightning strokes on
overhead lines or
substation

Line insulation flash


over or puncture.
The traveling wave
reaches substations.
The insulation of
equipment is
stressed by impulse
surge

-Use of Ground
wire
- Surge Diverters
-Earthing of
towers
-Lightning Masts

Switching
surges

Breaking inductive circuit,


the energy stored
inductance gives rise a
voltage rise across
capacitor.
Switching of capacitive,
line charging currents give
rise to a over voltage due
to restrike. Closing of EHV
lines

Wave travels from


C.B. to both sides
Transmission line
insulator, stressed.
Terminal apparatus
insulation stressed

-Use of opening
resistors with C.B.
- Use of restrike
free C.B.
-Use pre-insertion
resistors with C.B.

Over-voltage in Network and Remedies


Phenomena

Causes

Resonance The fault causing


resonance between
inductance and
capacitance in a part of
the circuit

Effect

Very high, voltage


surges occur.
Insulation failure
likely to occur.

Remedies

Filters to
eliminate
harmonics

Traveling
waves

High voltage waves get Reflected waves


-Proper
reflected on reaching gets superimposed switching
a junction or end.
for initial wave.
sequence.
Voltage may rise to
several time the
normal voltage.

Sustained
Power
frequency
over
voltage

Poor voltage control

Failure of
-Proper Voltage
transformers and
control
Rotating Machines

Protective Devices Against Lightning Over


voltages
Device

Where applied

Remarks

Rod gaps

Across insulator string,


bushing insulators

-Difficult to coordinate
-Create dead short
circuit
-Cheap

Overhead Ground
Wires (earthed)

-Above overhead lines


-Above the substation
area

-Provide effective
protection against
direct strokes on line
conductors towers sub
station equipment

Vertical Masts in
substations

-- in sub stations

-instead of providing
overhead shielding
wires

Lightning Masts/Rods
(earthed)

- Above tall buildings

Protect buildings
against direct strokes.
Angle of Protection
= 300

Protective Devices Against Lightning Over


voltages
Device

Where applied

Remarks

Surge Arresters

-- on incoming lines in
each substation
-Near terminals of
Transformers and
generators
-Near motor and
generators terminals

-- Diverts over voltage to


earth without causing
short circuit
-Used at every voltage
level in every substation and for each line.

Surge Absorbers

-- near rotating machines


connected between phase
and ground

-Resistance
Capacitance
Combination absorbs
the over voltage surge
and reduces steepness
of wave

Lightning arrester selection

1. To determine the magnitude of the power frequency phase to ground


voltage expected at the proposed arrester location during phase to ground
fault, or other abnormal conditions which cause higher voltages to ground
than normal.
2. To make a tentative selection of the power frequency voltage rating of the
arrester. This selection may have to be reconsidered after step (6) is
completed.
3. To select the impulse current likely to be discharged through the arrester.
4. To determine the maximum arrester discharge voltage for the impulse
current and type of arrester selected.
5. To establish the full-wave impulse voltage withstand level of the
equipment to be protected.
6. To make certain that the maximum arrester discharge voltage is below the
full wave impulse, withstand level of the equipment insulation to be
protected, by adequate margin.
7. To establish the separation limit between the arrester and the equipment
to be protected.

Types of Earthing
For purpose of selection of voltage rating of a LA
three types of earthing are considered
(I) Effective earthed system: a system is effectively
earthed if under any fault condition the line to
earth voltages of healthy phases do not exceed 80
% of the system line to line voltage
If in a system all transformers have star connected
winding with neutrally solidly earthed then the
system is effectively earthed
However if only few transformers are earthed like
that, it is not effectively earthed system

Types of Earthing - conted.


(II) Non effectively earthed system:
a) if the line to earth voltage in healthy phases in case
of a fault exceed 80% of the line to line voltage but does
not exceed 100% of it, the system is called non effectively
earthed system
b) System with few solidly earthed neutrals
c) Systems with neutral Earthed through resistors or
reactors of low ohmic value or arc suppression coil
(III) Isolated or un earthed neutral systems :system neutrals are not earthed. Line to earth voltage of
healthy phases exceed 100% of the line to line voltage.

Selection of lightening arrestors


Tentative selection of arrestor Voltage:
Arrestor Voltage rating shall not be less
than product of system highest voltage x
co-efficient of earthing
Co-efficient of earthing :
Effectively earthed system
Non effectively earthed system
and isolated earth system

80%
- 100 %

Selection of lightening arrestors


In a 220 kV effectively earthed system
Highest system voltage =
245 kV
Co-efficient of earthing =
80%
Arrestor voltage rating >= 245x0.8 = 196 kV
As per IS 3070 (part I) 1965 the rating is
198 kV

By going for a higher voltage rating for a


surge arrestor, the degree of protection for
equipment gets reduced.

Selection of arrestor discharge


current

This can be calculated from


(a) Spark over voltage of transmission line insulation
(b) Surge impedance of the line
(c) Residual discharge voltage of LA
Ia = 2E- Ea
Z
Ia = Arrestor discharge current
E = Magnitude of incoming surge voltage
Ea = Residual discharge voltage of an arrestor
Z = Surge impedance of the line

Selection of arrestor discharge


current
In a 220 kV system using 11 insulators
Transmission line will not permit a traveling wave
of a value more than 1025 kVp
As per IS 3010 (Part 1) -1965 the residual
voltages of LA at a discharge current of 10kA is
649 kV.
Considering the surge impedance as 450 ohms
Maximum value of discharge current of LA =
2(1025000)-649000
= 3100 Amps
450
The LAs normally in 200 kV system have a
discharge current rating of 10 kA.

Selection of arrestor discharge Voltage


Most important characteristic of LA determining the
protection level being offered
The arrestor discharge voltage shall be less than BIL of
equipment for effective protection
Discharge voltage depends on
(I) discharge current
(II) rate of rise of current applied
(III) Wave shape of current applied
Discharge voltage of LA increases with discharge current.
But increase is much restricted due to non linear
resistance property.
Increase in discharge from 5 kA to 20 kA produces only
25% rise in discharge voltage.
Increase in rate of current from 1000 to 5000 Amps per
micro second increases discharge voltage by only 35%.

Protective margin of LA
Protective margin of LA = BIL of the equipment--maximum discharge voltage of LA
While determining protection level offered by a LA 10%
allowances towards drop in lead length and
manufacturing tolerance shall be allowed.
Protective margin shall be 20% of the BIL of the
equipment when closely located
In a 220 kV system
Discharge voltage of LA = 649 kV
Allowing 10 % margin protection level = 713 kV
BIL of equipment = 900 kVp
Protection margin = 900-713 = 187 kVp
There is more than 20 % of the BIL of 180 kV

Protective margin of LA-Continue.


In American system
Average discharge voltage x 1.25 +40 kV
= BIL protected
When adequate margin is not available
LAs with lower rating shall be chosen
taking risk.

Insulation Co-ordination Scheme

For 220 KV system.


L.A. Voltage rating=system highest voltage x co-efficient of earthing =245x.8=196Kv.
Selecting standard rating from Table 12.1 column 1,L.A. voltage rating=198 Kv
Discharge current rating= 10KA (assumed)
Residual voltage, from column 3 of table 12.1,=649Kv (peak)
Protection level of the L.A. =649x1.1=714Kv
For a margin of 20% between the B.I.L. and the protection level of L.A., the B.I.L.
should be =714x1.2=857Kv.
Choose standard B.I.L. Table 14.3 (b) Col. 4=900 Kv,
The corresponding power freq. I minute test voltage =395kv
Switching surge flashover voltage =220 x6.5=825kv
3
Check it is less than B.I.L. of 900kv.
Power frequency over voltage=220x3=228kv rms
3
This is less than 395kv.
B.I.L. of CBs, instrument transformer, disconnect switches etc,.=900x1.1=990kv.
Choose standard B.I.L.=1175kv.

The L.A. voltage rating


Rated system
voltage KV

Highest system Arrester rating


voltage KV
in KV

132
220

145
245

120/132
198/216

400

420

336

Establishment of Separation Limit

When arrestor are to be located away from equipment.


A traveling wave coming into the station to location to the discharge voltage of the
arrestor.
Proximity to transformer or breakers.
- Transformer is most expensive price.
- Repair to transformer is costly and with higher revenue loss.
- Transformers are always at the end of a circuit where voltage regulation.
. For circuit breakers and disconnecting switches flash over distance between terminals
when in open position in grater than between terminals and ground.
. Surge in excess to insulation strength will flash over to ground with out damaging the
equipment.
. At best there can be only outage .
. By reducing BIL of transformer savings in the cost of insulation can be obtained.
. Not possible incase of CB or disconnections switches.
. Hence a set of LAS shall be closer to transformers.

Location of Lightning Arresters:

The electrical circuit length between L.A. and the transformer


bushing terminal (inclusive of lead length in metes for effectively
earthed) should not exceed the limits given below:

Rated syst.
voltage KV

BIL KV
Peak

Max.
distance

132kV

550
650

35.0
45.0

220kV
400kV

900/1050
1425/1550

Closer
to
Trans.