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EFFECT

Decrease in water
quality

Eutrophication

ENVIRONM
ENT
Decrease in dissolved
oxygen level

Increase turbidity and


decrease in water
clarity

EFFECT
Soil and crop yields

Long run effect on


quality of
underground water

ENVIRONM
ENT

EFFECT
Disease-related
impact on fish that
may impact human
health

Damage and loss of


aquatic species

HUMAN &
OTHER LIVING
ORGANISM

Loss of habitat due to


eutrophication

Contaminated
drinking water

PREVENTION
A waste stabilization pond makes use of
Waste Stabilization
Pond

natural purification processes involved


in an ecosystem through the regulating
of such processes. The term "waste
stabilization pond" in its simplest form
is applied to a body of water, artificial
or natural, employed with the intention
of retaining sewage or organic waste
waters until the wastes are rendered
stable and inoffensive for discharge into
receiving waters or on land, through
physical, chemical and biological
processes commonly referred to as
"self-purification" and involving the
symbiotic action of algae and bacteria
under the influence of sunlight and air.
Organic matter contained in the waste
is stabilized and converted in the pond
into more stable matter in the form of
algal cells which find their way into the
effluent and hence the term

PREVENTION
Carp Fish

One of the way to make sure that


the secondary water treatment
effluent are safe to discharged to
the open water. Some country such
as Japan has implement this
prevention ways.

Steps to Prevent Sewage Pollution in your neighborhood


Sewer overflows and backups can cause health hazards, damage home
interiors, and threaten the environment. Sewage pollution gets into our local
creeks when it escapes the sewage system. Following steps helps you to
reduce sewer overflow in your apartment or neighborhood.
Tree roots can invade even the smallest cracks in pipes. Tree roots can block
the pipes causing sewers to backup and overflow. Careful thought needs to be
given to the location of thirsty trees.
Use basket/strainers in sinks to catch food scraps and empty them into trash
for disposal.
Cracked pipes have to be repaired or replaced.
Broken sewer pipes not only let stormwater in, they can also allow untreated
waste to enter the soil and create unhealthy conditions. If you suspect broken
pipes, have your system inspected by a licensed plumber.
Stormwater downpipes are not allowed to be connected to the sewerage
system. The effect of doing so is overflows of diluted raw sewage further down
the system. This is a major cause of sewer overflows.
People pouring grease down sewer lines are other common reasons for sewage
overflows. Never pour grease down sink drains or into toilets.
Using contaminated sewage for fertilizer can result in epidemics of such
diseases as cholera. These diseases can even become chronic where clean
water supplies are lacking.

Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness


is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal,
manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural.
Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity
and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to
combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic
balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is
called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could
think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate
the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of
preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and nonconventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where
the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have
become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers
use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of
sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of
conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization
pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem
through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization
pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural,
employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters
until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into
receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological
processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the
symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and
air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in

Use of untreated sewage water pose a high risk to


human health and other living organisms.
Wastewater contain salts that may accumulate in the
root zone with possible harmful impacts on soil health
and crop yields.
Wastewater application has the potential to affect the
quality of groundwater resources in the long run through
excess nutrients and salts.
When drainage water drains particularly into water
bodies and surface water the remains of nutrients may
cause eutrophication.
Natural resource concerns such as pollution of vital water
resources, loss of fish, wildlife, exotic species, etc.

How do nutrients from wastewater treatment enter waterways?


Wastewater contains inorganic and organic nutrients and
suspended solids. These can pollutewaterways if left untreated and
affect invertebrate and mahinga kai communities. Groundwaters
and surface water may be contaminated if their assimilative
capacity is exceeded or nutrients are flushed down the drain.
Treatment plants that purify water to a high standard (tertiary
treatment) can minimise the risks of harm to waterways. Landfills
also can produce leachate which can escape into waterways when
rainfall picks up decomposing organic wastes.
Potential impacts of high nutrients on water quality and mahinga
kai
Eutrophication - excess nutrients in lakes, estuaries, or slow-moving
streams and rivers can lead to an increase in primary productivity
which stimulates excessive plant growth (algae and nuisance plants
and weeds), thereby degrading water quality.
Loss of species - an increase in plant growth, sometimes called an
algal bloom, reduces dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water when
dead plant material decomposes and can cause organisms (fish
and invertebrates) to die.
Loss of habitat - eutrophication of the water can kill off plants that
fish depend on for their habitat.
Increase in turbidity and a decrease in visibility - when the

What are the impacts of infectious substances in wastewater


on water quality and mahinga kai?
Wastewater dischargescontain pathogenic micro-organisms.
Surface and groundwaters can easily become contaminated
by pathogens when effluent is discharged to a waterway or is
discharged/deposited onto land near waterways. Treatment
plants that purify water to a high standard (tertiary
treatment) can minimise the risks of harm to waterways.
Disinfection of wastewater prior to discharging into the
environment greatly reduces the impact of pathogens.
Potential impacts of infectious substances on water quality
and mahinga kai
A decrease in water quality.
Contamination of water and mahinga kai, especially shellfish,
downstream of the discharge (source) that makes it
unsuitable for harvesting (fishing or food gathering).
Water becomes unsuitable for swimming or recreational use.
Greater probability of disease-related impacts on fish
populations.

Chemical contamination and wastewater


What are the potential sources of chemical contaminants in wastewaters?
Wastewater contains heavy metals and potentially hazardous wastes. These can contaminate a
waterwayif left untreated and affect invertebrate and mahinga kai communities. Ground and
surface waters may be contaminated if their assimilative capacity is exceeded or contaminants
are flushed down the drain. Treatment plants that purify water to a high standard (tertiary
treatment) can minimise the risks of harm to waterways. However, decomposing waste in
landfills generates methane, a harmful greenhouse gas. Landfills also can produce leachate
which can escape into waterways when rainfall picks up heavy metals and decomposing organic
wastes.
Potential impacts of chemical contaminants on water quality and mahinga kai
Local loss of fish species - fish may be harmed by contaminated water. Discharges and runoff
into waterways can be lethal to aquatic life, causing fish kills from contaminants such as
pesticides.
Local loss of invertebrate species - invertebrates are food for fish and persistent discharges that
kill invertebrates could cause fish to travel farther in search of food, exposing them to greater
risks and stress.
Decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels - waste compounds released into waterways initiate
biochemical reactions that use up oxygen as the naturally present bacteria break down the
organic matter (Biogeochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD). Excess nutrients can also lead to algal
blooms and oxygen is used up when the algae die and decompose. Fish breath oxygen through
their gills; a decrease in available oxygen (anoxia) in the water column threatens their ability to
respire, which may lead to death. Fish that tolerate low levels of dissolved oxygen (such as the
introduced species gambusia) may replace native populations that are less tolerant.
Increase turbidity and decrease in water clarity - water becomes cloudy and coloured green and
brown, which reduces the ability of fish to see prey and detect predators.
Damage to species - repeated exposure to sub-lethal doses of some contaminants can cause
physiological and behavioural changes in fish that have long term effects on the population,
such as reduced reproductive success, abandonment of nests and broods, a decreased
immunity to disease, tumours and lesions, impairment of the central nervous system, and

Aesthetic Effects

Odor and Taste are useful indicators of water quality even though odor-free
water is not necessarily safe to drink. Odor is also an indicator of the
effectiveness of different kinds of treatment. However, present methods of
measuring taste and odor are still fairly subjective and the task of identifying
an unacceptable level for each chemical in different waters requires more
study. Also, some contaminant odors are noticeable even when present in
extremely small amounts. It is usually very expensive and often impossible to
identify, much less remove, the odor-producing substance.

Standards related to odor and taste: Chloride, Copper, Foaming Agents, Iron,
Manganese pH, Sulfate, Threshold Odor Number (TON), Total Dissolved Solids,
Zinc.
Color may be indicative of dissolved organic material, inadequate treatment,
high disinfectant demand and the potential for the production of excess
amounts of disinfectant by-products. Inorganic contaminants such as metals
are also common causes of color. In general, the point of consumer complaint
is variable over a range from 5 to 30 color units, though most people find
color objectionable over 15 color units. Rapid changes in color levels may
provoke more citizen complaints than a relatively high, constant color level.

Standards related to color: Aluminum, Color, Copper, Foaming Agents, Iron,


Manganese, Total Dissolved Solids.
Foaming is usually caused by detergents and similar substances when water
has been agitated or aerated as in many faucets. An off-taste described as

Skin discoloration is a cosmetic effect related to silver ingestion.


This effect, called argyria, does not impair body function, and has
never been found to be caused by drinking water in the United
States. A standard has been set, however, because silver is used
as an antibacterial agent in many home water treatment devices,
and so presents a potential problem which deserves attention.
Standard related to this effect: Silver.
Tooth discoloration and/or pitting is caused by excess fluoride
exposures during the formative period prior to eruption of the
teeth in children. The secondary standard of 2.0mg/Lis intended
as a guideline for an upper boundary level in areas which have
high levels of naturally occurring fluoride.The level of the
SMCLwas set based upon a balancing of the beneficial effects of
protection from tooth decay and the undesirable effects of
excessive exposures leading to discoloration. Information about
the Centers for Disease Control's(CDC)recommendations
regarding optimal fluoridation levels and the beneficial effects for
protection from tooth decay can be found on its
Community Water Fluoridation page.
Standard related to this effect: Fluoride.

Corrosivity, and staining related to corrosion, not only affect


the aesthetic quality of water, but may also have significant
economic implications. Other effects of corrosive water, such
as the corrosion of iron and copper, may stain household
fixtures, and impart objectionable metallic taste and red or
blue-green color to the water supply as well. Corrosion of
distribution system pipes can reduce water flow.
Standards related to corrosion and staining: Chloride,
Copper, Corrosivity, Iron, Manganese, pH, Total Dissolved
Solids, Zinc.
Scaling and sedimentation are other processes which have
economic impacts. Scale is a mineral deposit which builds
up on the insides of hot water pipes, boilers, and heat
exchangers, restricting or even blocking water flow.
Sediments are loose deposits in the distribution system or
home plumbing.
Standards related to scale and sediments: Iron, pH, Total
Dissolved Solids, Aluminum.

Secondary (biological) treatmentremoves the


dissolved organic matter that escapes primary
treatment. This is achieved by microbes consuming
the organic matter as food, and converting it to
carbon dioxide, water, and energy for their own
growth and reproduction. The biological process is
then followed by additional settling tanks (secondary
sedimentation", see photo) to remove more of the
suspended solids. About 85% of the suspended solids
and BOD can be removed by a well running plant with
secondary treatment. Secondary treatment
technologies include the basic activated sludge
process, the variants of pond and constructed wetland
systems, trickling filters and other forms of treatment
which use biological activity to break down organic
matter.