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The Mechanism

of Sense Organ
Marcheli Alexandra T (3415126631)
Leni Melisa (3415266

Stimuli  receptors
effectors -> response

nervous system




Coordination system .

sight Light 2..Taste 5.Smell Electromagnetic Photoreceptor Eye Mechanical deformation Mechanoreceptor Ear Chemoreceptor Taste bud Mechanoreceptor.Sense. receptor and sense Sense Stimulus Energy Receptor organ 1.Hearing Sound 3.Touch Touch. pain. stimulus. Sense organ Mechanical deformation Chemical chemical in air chemoreceptor Chemoreceptor Nose . Skin Chemical Chemical in food 4.

The Mechanism of Sight • Mechanism of vison .


Eye .

Photoreceptor .

The difference Between Rod and Cone .

Rods Cones Periphery of retina Concentrated at centre Large number in yellow spot High visual sensitivity Low Low visual acuity -detect dim light -night vision -cannot detect colour High -only detect strong light -day vision -detect colour .

Peak Sensitivity of Rods and Cones .

retinene undergoes isomeric change. rhodopsin breaks down to scotopsin and retinene (both colourless)  Bleaching of visual pigments  nerve impulse 12 .photochemical reaction Light Rhodopsin retinene (purple) Scotopsin + Dark Nerve impulse Under light.

Trichromatic theory of colour vision • Sensation of any given colour is determined by the relative frequency of impulses reaching the brain from each type of cone • stimulate both green and red cones  yellow -Colour blindness -Red-green colour blindness 13 .

The mechanism of Hearing .

Major Divisions of the Ear Peripheral Mechanism VIII Outer Middl Inner Crania Ear e Ear Ear l Nerve Central Mechanism Brain .

.16 How Sound Travels Through The Ear.. .

Outter Ear .


and other debris • Moisturize epithelium in ear canal • Odor discourages insects • Antibiotic.Outter Ear • Cerumen • The purpose of wax: • Repel water • Trap dust. antiviral. micro-organisms. antifungal properties • Cleanse ear canal . sand particles.

Middle Ear • Tympanic Membrane • The Ossicular Chain • Eustachian Tube • Stapedius Muscle .

Tympanic Membrane Cone-shaped in appearance • about 17.5 mm in diameter The eardrum vibrates in response to sound pressure waves. The membrane movement is incredibly small • as little as one-billionth of a centimeter .

The Ossicular Chain • A: Malleus • B: Incus • C: Stapes • Ossicles are smallest bones in the body • Act as a lever system • Footplate of stapes enters oval window of the cochlea .

connects middle ear to back of the throat (nasopharynx) • Equalizes air pressure • Normally closed except during yawning or swallowing • Not a part of the hearing process .Eustachian Tube • Lined with mucous membrane.

Stapedius Muscle • Connects the stapes to the middle ear wall • Contracts in response to loud sounds. known as the Acoustic Reflex .

Middle Ear • Conduction • Conduct sound from the outer ear to the inner ear • Protection • Creates a barrier that protects the middle and inner areas from foreign objects • Middle ear muscles may provide protection from loud sounds • Transducer • Converts acoustic energy to mechanical energy • Converts mechanical energy to hydraulic energy • Amplifier • Transformer action of the middle ear • only about 1/1000 of the acoustic energy in air would be transmitted to the inner-ear fluids (about 30 dB hearing loss) .

Inner Ear .

Choclea • Snail shaped. Have 3 canals they are • Scala Vestibuli • Scala Tympani • Scala Media .