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Energy Efficiency and Renewable

Energy

Chapter 16
G. Tyler Millers
Living in the Environment
13th Edition

Key Concepts

Improving energy efficiency


Solar energy
Hydropower (flowing water)
Wind
Biomass
Hydrogen fuel
Geothermal
Decentralized power systems

Doing more with less


Energy efficiency
is the percentage of total energy
input into an energy conversion
device or system that
1) does useful work and
2) is not converted to low-quality heat.

The Importance of Improving Energy


Efficiency
84% of all
commercial
energy produced
in the U.S. is
wasted!

Fig. 16-2 p. 381

The Importance of Improving Energy


Efficiency
Lower life cycle cost
Initial cost plus lifetime operating cost

Net energy efficiency


Total amount of useful energy available minus the
amount of energy

used (First Law of Thermodynamics)


automatically wasted (Second Law of Thermodynamics)
unnecessarily wasted.

Least Efficient
Incandescent light bulb (5%)
Internal combustion engine (10-15%)
Nuclear power plants (8-14%)

REDUCING ENERGY WASTE AND


IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Four widely used devices waste large amounts
of energy:
Incandescent light bulb: 95% is lost as heat.
Internal combustion engine: 94% of the energy in
its fuel is wasted.
Nuclear power plant: 92% of energy is wasted
through nuclear fuel and energy needed for waste
management.
Coal-burning power plant: 66% of the energy
released by burning coal is lost.

Efficiencies (fig. 16-4 p. 382)

Uranium
mining
(95%)
Uranium
100%

Uranium processing
and transportation
(57%)
95%

Waste
heat

Power Transmission
plant of electricity
(31%)
(85%)

Waste
heat

14%

17%

54%

Waste
heat

Resistance
heating
(100%)

Waste
heat

Electricity from Nuclear Power Plant

Sunlight
100%

90%

Energy
Efficiency

Passive Solar

Waste
heat

14%

Could we save energy by


recycling energy?
No
Second Law of Thermodynamics

Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency


In Our Homes
Insulation
Eliminate air leaks
Air-to-air heat exchangers
Industry
Cogeneration
Two useful sources of energy are produced from the same fuel
source

Efficient electric motors


High efficiency lighting
Increased fuel economy

Saving Energy in Existing Buildings

About one-third of the heated air in typical


U.S. homes and buildings escapes through
closed windows and holes and cracks.
Figure 17-11

WAYS TO IMPROVE ENERGY


EFFICIENCY
Average fuel
economy of new
vehicles sold in the
U.S. between
1975-2006.
The government
Corporate Average
Fuel Economy
(CAFE) has not
increased after
1985.
Figure 17-5

Increased Fuel Economy


Rechargeable battery systems
Hybrid electric-internal combustion engine
Fuel cells

Hybrid Car
(Electric Internal
Combustion Engine)

A Combustion engine
B Fuel tank
C Electric motor
D Battery bank

E Regulator

F Transmission
E

F
C

Fuel
Electricity

Fuel Cell Cars

A Fuel cell stack


B Fuel tank
C Turbo compressor

D Traction inverter
D
C
E
A

Fuel
Electricity

E Electric motor /
transaxle

1 Cell splits H2 into protons


and electrons. Protons flow
across catalyst membrane.

Hydrogen gas

2
3 Produce electrical
energy (flow of
electrons) to power car.

4 Emits water
(H2O) vapor.

O2

2 React with oxygen (O2).

H2O

H2

The Solar-Hydrogen Revolution


Extracting hydrogen efficiently
Storing hydrogen
Fuel cells

Fuel Cells
Advantages
Energy efficiencies of 65-90%
No moving parts
Quiet
Emit only water and heat
More reliable
Disadvantage
Cost

Using Solar Energy to Provide Heat


and Electricity
Passive solar
heating

Active solar
heating

Using Solar Energy to Provide HighTemperature Heat and Electricity

Solar thermal systems

Using Solar Energy to Provide HighTemperature Heat and Electricity

Photovoltaic (PV) cells

Using Solar Energy to Provide HighTemperature Heat and Electricity

Producing Electricity from Moving Water


Large-scale
hydropower
Small-scale
hydropower
Pumped-storage
hydropower

Producing Electricity from Moving Water


Tidal power
plant
Wave power

Producing Electricity from Heat


Stored in Water
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

Saline solar ponds

Freshwater solar ponds

Producing Electricity from Wind


Fig. 16-28 p. 402

Fig. 16-29 p. 402

Producing Energy from Biomass


Biofuels
Biomass plantations
Crop residues
Animal manure
Biogas
Ethanol
Methanol

Geothermal Energy
Geothermal reservoirs
Dry steam
Wet steam
Hot water

Fig. 16-36
p. 409

Molten rock
Hot dry-rock zones

Geothermal Reservoirs

Fig. 16-37 p. 410

Entering the Age of Decentralized


Micropower
Current Centralized power systems
Future Decentralized power systems
Micropower systems
Fig. 16-39
p. 411

Fig. 16-40 p. 411

Solutions:
A Sustainable Energy Strategy