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Nursing Research

- Sampling Design
- Understanding Survey Sampling
- Sampling 3
- Sampling
- Understanding Survey Sampling
- Understanding Survey Sampling
- Understanding Survey Sampling
- Population vs Sample
- Understanding Survey Sampling
- Understanding Survey Sampling
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- Understanding Survey Sampling
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Muhammad Shahid

Lecturer IIN

Population

All the inhabitants of a given country or area

considered together; the number of inhabitants of a

given country or area

The population is all elements (individuals, objective,

or substance) that meet certain criteria for inclusions

in a study (Kerlinger, 1986).

Population

Target Population

The group from which the study population is selected

Study Population

The group selected for investigation

Elements of a population

The subject on which the measurement is collected

Sampling

Sample

A sample is a subset of the population that is

selected for a particular study, and the members of a

sample are the subjects.

Sampling

Sampling

The process of selecting a number from all the subjects

is a process of selecting subjects who are representative of the

population being studied

Sampling frame

List of Participants

Sampling Type

Probability

Simple Random sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Cluster sampling

Systematic Sampling

Non Probability

Convenience sampling

Quota Sampling

Purposive sampling

Network Sampling

Probability Sampling

Is a method of sampling that utilizes

some form of random selection. In order

to have a random selection method, you

must set up some process or procedure

that assures that the different units in

your population have equal probabilities

of being chosen.

Objective

To select n units out of N such that each unit

has an equal chance of being selected.

Procedure

Use a table of random numbers, a computer

random number generator, or a mechanical

device to select the sample.

A stratified random sample is one

obtained by separating the

population elements into nonoverlapping groups, called strata,

and then selecting a simple random

sample from each stratum.

Number the units in the population from 1

to N decide on the n (sample size) that

you want or need k = N/n = the interval

size randomly select an integer between

1 to k then take every kth unit

All of this will be much clearer with an

example. Let's assume that we have a

population that only has N=100 people in it

and that you want to take a sample of n=20.

To use systematic sampling, the population

must be listed in a random order. The

sampling fraction would be f = 20/100 = 20%

in this case, the interval size, k, is equal to

N/n = 100/20 = 5.

Now, select a random integer from 1 to 5. In our

example, imagine that you chose 4. Now, to

select the sample, start with the 4th unit in the list

and take every k-th unit (every 5th, because k=5).

You would be sampling units 4, 9, 14, 19, and so

on to 100 and you would wind up with 20 units in

your sample.

Cluster Sampling

Divide population into clusters (usually along

geographic boundaries)

Randomly sample clusters

Measure all units within sampled clusters

Cluster Sampling

is a probability sample in which each

sample unit is a collection, or

cluster, of elements.

The first task in cluster sampling is

to specify appropriate clusters.

Elements within a cluster are often

physically close together and hence

tent to have similar characteristics.

Convenience sampling

Quota Sampling

Purposive sampling

Network Sampling

Convenience sampling

is used in exploratory research where the

researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive

approximation of the truth. As the name implies,

the sample is selected because they are

convenient. This non-probability method is often

used during preliminary research efforts to get a

gross estimate of the results, without incurring

the cost or time required to select a random

sample.

Quota Sampling

It uses a convenience sampling technique

with added feature - a strategy to ensure the

inclusion of subjects types who are likely to

be underrepresented in the convenience

sample e.g. ethnicity , Hindu religion in

Pakistan

Quota sampling

is the non-probability equivalent of stratified

sampling. Like stratified sampling, the

researcher first identifies the stratums and their

proportions as they are represented in the

population. Then convenience or judgment

sampling is used to select the required number

of subjects from each stratum. This differs from

stratified sampling, where the stratums are filled

by random sampling.

Purposive /Judgment

Sampling

is a common non-probability method. The

researcher selects the sample based on judgment.

This is usually and extension of convenience

sampling. For example, a researcher may decide

to draw the entire sample from one

"representative" city, even though the population

includes all cities. When using this method, the

researcher must be confident that the chosen

sample is truly representative of the entire

population.

is a special non-probability method used when the

desired sample characteristic is rare. It may be

extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate

respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling

relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate

additional subjects. While this technique can

dramatically lower search costs, it comes at the

expense of introducing bias because the technique

itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will

represent a good cross section from the population.

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