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Muhammad Shahid
Lecturer IIN

All the inhabitants of a given country or area
considered together; the number of inhabitants of a
given country or area
The population is all elements (individuals, objective,
or substance) that meet certain criteria for inclusions
in a study (Kerlinger, 1986).

Target Population
The group from which the study population is selected

Study Population
The group selected for investigation

Elements of a population
The subject on which the measurement is collected

A sample is a subset of the population that is
selected for a particular study, and the members of a
sample are the subjects.

The process of selecting a number from all the subjects
is a process of selecting subjects who are representative of the
population being studied

Sampling frame
List of Participants

Sampling Type
Simple Random sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Cluster sampling
Systematic Sampling

Non Probability

Convenience sampling
Quota Sampling
Purposive sampling
Network Sampling

Probability Sampling
Is a method of sampling that utilizes
some form of random selection. In order
to have a random selection method, you
must set up some process or procedure
that assures that the different units in
your population have equal probabilities
of being chosen.

Simple Random Sampling

To select n units out of N such that each unit
has an equal chance of being selected.

Use a table of random numbers, a computer
random number generator, or a mechanical
device to select the sample.

Stratified Random Sample

A stratified random sample is one
obtained by separating the
population elements into nonoverlapping groups, called strata,
and then selecting a simple random
sample from each stratum.

Systematic Random Sampling

Number the units in the population from 1
to N decide on the n (sample size) that
you want or need k = N/n = the interval
size randomly select an integer between
1 to k then take every kth unit

Systematic Random Sampling

All of this will be much clearer with an
example. Let's assume that we have a
population that only has N=100 people in it
and that you want to take a sample of n=20.
To use systematic sampling, the population
must be listed in a random order. The
sampling fraction would be f = 20/100 = 20%
in this case, the interval size, k, is equal to
N/n = 100/20 = 5.

Systematic Random Sampling

Now, select a random integer from 1 to 5. In our
example, imagine that you chose 4. Now, to
select the sample, start with the 4th unit in the list
and take every k-th unit (every 5th, because k=5).
You would be sampling units 4, 9, 14, 19, and so
on to 100 and you would wind up with 20 units in
your sample.

Cluster Sampling
Divide population into clusters (usually along
geographic boundaries)
Randomly sample clusters
Measure all units within sampled clusters

Cluster Sampling
is a probability sample in which each
sample unit is a collection, or
cluster, of elements.
The first task in cluster sampling is
to specify appropriate clusters.
Elements within a cluster are often
physically close together and hence
tent to have similar characteristics.

Non Probability sampling

Convenience sampling
Quota Sampling
Purposive sampling
Network Sampling

Convenience sampling
is used in exploratory research where the
researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive
approximation of the truth. As the name implies,
the sample is selected because they are
convenient. This non-probability method is often
used during preliminary research efforts to get a
gross estimate of the results, without incurring
the cost or time required to select a random

Quota Sampling
It uses a convenience sampling technique
with added feature - a strategy to ensure the
inclusion of subjects types who are likely to
be underrepresented in the convenience
sample e.g. ethnicity , Hindu religion in

Quota sampling
is the non-probability equivalent of stratified
sampling. Like stratified sampling, the
researcher first identifies the stratums and their
proportions as they are represented in the
population. Then convenience or judgment
sampling is used to select the required number
of subjects from each stratum. This differs from
stratified sampling, where the stratums are filled
by random sampling.

Purposive /Judgment
is a common non-probability method. The
researcher selects the sample based on judgment.
This is usually and extension of convenience
sampling. For example, a researcher may decide
to draw the entire sample from one
"representative" city, even though the population
includes all cities. When using this method, the
researcher must be confident that the chosen
sample is truly representative of the entire

Network / Snowball Sampling

is a special non-probability method used when the
desired sample characteristic is rare. It may be
extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate
respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling
relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate
additional subjects. While this technique can
dramatically lower search costs, it comes at the
expense of introducing bias because the technique
itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will
represent a good cross section from the population.