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Unit Two

Nursing Personnel
Management

Learning objectives
At the end of this unit, the learner will be
able to;
Define nursing personnel management
Mention acquisition and retention
activity of human resource
Compare different acquisition and
retention activities in HCO
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Definition of terms

Human resource management:

Process of acquiring and retaining the


organization human resource.

Nursing personnel management:


Process of acquiring and retaining
nurse personnel
In the health care organization or
health educational institution.

1. Acquisition activity

A.
B.
C.
D.

Human resource planning


Recruitment
Selection
Orientation

A. Human resource planning

Refers to planning for future


personnel needs of an organization.
Takes into account both internal
activities, and factors in the external
environment.
Precedes the other acquiring
activities.
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Human resource planning


procedures
Includes;
Planning for future needs
Planning for future balance
(number needed versus present)
Planning for recruiting
Planning for the development of
employees
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Driving force of staff need in


HSO
1. Organizational growth. Due to;
Increased demand for service
by the organization
Addition of new service
Higher occupancy
Facility expansion
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Driving force of staff need in


HSO
2. Staffs turn over. Due to;
Resignation
Discharge
Retirement

Human resources planning steps

Have five steps. These are;


1.Profiling- personnel need
2.Estimating- type and number
3.Inventorying- HR audit
4.Forecasting- Anticipating change
5.Planning- knowledge, skill and
practice

Human Resource Sources


1. Internal Sources:-from within the organization.
Advantage
It is cost effective, reduces recruiting and
relocation costs
Usually quicker
Enhances employee morale
Disadvantage
Seniority rules policy rather than best
qualification
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Human Resource Sources


2. External sources:
New employees from outside.
Through;
Advertising vacancies,
Visits to colleges and universities,
Contacts with public and private
employment agencies, and
Participation in professional
organizations.
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Human Resource Sources


Advantage
Best qualified individual will be
recruited
It avoids seniority rules and policy
Disadvantage
It is costly
Not quicker/late
Decrease employee morale
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B. Recruitment
Attracting qualified people to apply for
job or making applicants available for
selection.
Activities in recruitment;
1.Writing job description
2.Writing position description
3.Writing hiring specification
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Recruitment
Sources for recruitment depend on:
Type skill required (or nature of
position)
Environmental factors (demand)
Local labor pool (availability)

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Principles of recruitment
Affirmative action: giving priority for

females and minorities (this is in


practice in Ethiopia)
Equal payment : like pay for like jobs
(Equal Pay Act USA).
Comparable worth: the principle that
different jobs that require comparable
skills and knowledge deserves
comparable payment
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Methods of recruitment
Peer recruiter (advantage: well
informed, person is identified).
Within the organization (advantage:
familiar, inspiring, less expensive).
Outside the organization (e.g.
colleges, graduate schools, other
organizations).
Formal announcement (mass
media).

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Legal considerations during


recruitment
The Laws: it is good to know what the
law says in a country or a nation. For
instance the laws;

Prohibiting discrimination by: Race,


Sex, Age, Color, National origin.
Equal employment opportunity: citizens
have equal right to be employed as long as
they fulfill requirement for a job.
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C. Selection
Process of choosing for employment.
Choose among the applicants.
The essence of selection is to determine
whether an applicant is suited for the job in
terms of training, experience and abilities.
The organization decides whether or not to
make job offer and the candidate decides
whether or not to accept it
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C. Selection

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Source of information
The source of information for
selection are;
Application forms
Pre-employment interview
Testing

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Selection process
The process depends on:1. The level of placement of employee in
the organization hierarchy
Lower level: routine (for example
recruitments of guards, cleaners, or, low
level employees)
Middle or upper level: extensive and
carefully planned - in-depth interview (for
example professionals, administrators).
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Selection process
2. Information exchange (organization to
candidate)
The organization may exaggerate its
strength (exaggeration of organizational
values and achievements)
The candidate may overestimate his or
her quality (exaggeration of personal
achievements and abilities). It good if the
candidate provides realistic job review
(strength and weaknesses)
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Selection process
The candidate may pass through the
following process;
1. Complete job application (applicable in
many organizations).
2. Initial screening interview (to filter the
type of candidate required).
3. Testing (some big organizations follow this
method).
4. Background investigation (contacting
previous employers or schools, etc).
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Selection process
5. In-depth selection interview
(competition among the possible
candidates)
6. Physical examination (this is usually
a requirement when the job is about to
be offered)
7. Job offer (the candidate wins a
position and the official offer comes
from the organization)
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D. Orientation/socialization
It is a program designed to help
employees to fit into the
organization smoothly.
Types of information provided
General information
About the organization
Detailed presentation
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Orientation/socialization
Employee concerns
Anxious because of new environment.
Perception of the tasks and performance.
Experience in relation to job and organization.
How to go along with other employee.
Personal and family problems.
Provide information, introduce, encourage
questions.

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Orientation/socialization
Advantage of orientation;
Builds employees sense of identification
in the HSO.
Helps to get acceptance by fellow
workers.
Give them a clear understanding of many
things they need to know.
Enables the new employee to become
familiar with the entire organization as
well as their own work area and dpt.
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2. Retention activity

A. Personnel training and


development
B. Performance appraisal
C. Promotion
D. Motivation

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A. Personnel training and


development
The formal procedure which an

organization utilizes to facilitate


learning.
Training enhance organization's
efficiency
Training attain the goals of both the
organization and individual.
For managers Vs Non-managers (???)
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Management development
program

To improve knowledge and skills of


managers (for effectiveness and
promotion).
Now a days frequently used
because experience takes time.
Costly.
Some prefer to providing practical
job experience.

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Assessing training needs


Procedures to determine training needs of
individuals;
1.Performance appraisal-measuring work
2.Analysis of job requirements-available skill
3.Organizational analysis-effectiveness of the
organization
4.Employee survey-problems faced and
actions needed.
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Approaches to training

A. On-the-job training: in job or duty.


Done inside the organization.
Job rotation: variety working unit.
Internship: combined classroom
teaching.
Apprenticeship: training under
guidance of skilled co-worker.

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Approaches to training
B. Off-the-job training: outside work
area or in cut of work. Done outside
the organization.
Vestibule training: training on
realistic job setting or equipment.
Behaviorally experienced training:
simulation, exercises, cases,
games, role-playing.
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B. Performance appraisal
A systemic review of an individual

employee's performance on the job.


Used to evaluate effectiveness of his/her
work.
Can be;
Informal PA:-Feedback on day-to-day
performance (strength/weaknesses).
Formal PA:-A systematic feedback about
performance (semi-annually or annually).
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Purpose of PA
Provide information for decision regarding

salary praises, promotions, transfers or


discharges.
To assist employees in their personal
development.
To assess the effectiveness of hiring and
recruiting practices.
To identify training and development needs of
the employees.
For establishment of standards of job
performances.
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Common problem in PA

Difficult to perform if the span of

control is high
Leniency error (negative & positive)
Halo error
Deference in understanding of
standards
Reduced validity of ratings
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Tools of performance appraisal


Rating scale-consisting of b/r or xtics to be
rated and scale that indicate fulfillment.
Methods;
Managers rating (commonest)
Group of managers rating (second
most commonest)
Group of peers rating
Employees rating of bosses
combination of methods.

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Tools of performance appraisal

Check list-consisting of a number


of questions that measure the
employees performance.
Mgt by objective-Observation of
predetermined goals that have been
jointly agreed up on by the
employee and the evaluator.
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Characteristics of an effective PA

Relate PA to the job description.


Understand the criteria for
evaluation.

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Appraisal methods designed to


avoid raters bias
Field review
Forced choice rating
Critical incident

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C. Promotion
It is a movement to a position in
which responsibilities and
presumably, prestige are increased
-Dale Yoder.
Promotion results into more pay,
prestige, responsibilities, and
position with in organization

Purpose of Promotion
Motivate employees
Attract and retain talented people
Recognize and reward efforts and efficiency
Increase effectiveness and efficiency of
employee
Fill up higher posts form within the
organization
Build loyalty and morale
To provide career development path

Types of Promotion
1. Open promotions: open for all
individuals within the organization
and announce the vacancies
internally.
2. Closed promotions: not open
for all the individuals within the
organization and also does not
announce the vacancies internally.

Types of Promotion
3. Multiple Chain promotions: provides
for a systematic linkage of each position to
several others.
4. Dry promotions: in lieu of increase in
compensation.
5. Horizontal promotion: have similar
kind of work.
6. Vertical promotion : change in the
nature of the work.

Principles of Promotions
HRM must clearly established policy
whether to promote from with in to
fill higher vacant position or from
recruitment of external candidate
Basis of promotion (seniority or
performance)
Promotions against vacant positions
or non-vacant positions (time bound)

Principles of Promotions
Frequent promotions are not good
practice
Promotions decision must be made based
on job analysis and performance
appraisal
Clear promotion policy and
communication to employees
Promotion based on competence must be
advertised on notice board

Promotion Policy
Every organization should have a
promotion policy.
Each organization should strike a balance
between the internal sources of personnel
promotion and external sources of
recruitment on one hand and between
merit and ability as against length of
service on the other.

Promotion Policy
Characteristics of a sound promotion
policy:
1)It should have consistency and be corelated to the career planning.
2)It should be fair and impartial.
3)It should be a planned activity, so that
there is no phenomena of bunching or
no period of promotional drought.

Promotions criteria
Seniority based promotions
Merits

Easy to administer
Less subjectivity
Labour unions are
happy
Experience is taken
into account
Subordinates feel
relax
Loyalty is rewarded

Demerits

Competence is
ignored
Seniority issues
Young and competent
employees feel
aggrieved and
frustration
Poor performer may
get promoted
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Promotions criteria
Performance based
promotions
Merits
Demerits
Performance is
rewarded
Competent
employees get
motivated and
retained
Productivity
increases

Senior employee
get frustrated
Favoritism and
subjectivity
Loyalty and service
length are not
considered
Union leaders
oppose and retaliate
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D. Motivation
The force either with in or external to a

person that arouses enthusiasm and


persistence to peruse a certain course of
action.
A process of stimulating people to action to
accomplish desired goal.
Motivating: the management process of
influencing peoples behavior based on the
knowledge what makes people thick.

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Basic assumptions about


motivation
Motivation is commonly assumed to be a
good thing e.g. family, teachers.
Motivation is one of several factors that
goes into a persons performance e.g.
ability, resources, conditions.
Motivation is short supply and in need of
periodic replenishment.
Motivation is a tool with which managers
can arrange job relationship in
organizations.
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Basic Principles
Motivating employees starts with
motivating yourself
Key to supporting the motivation
of your employees is
understanding what motivates
each of them
Recognize that supporting
employee motivation is a
process, not a task

Motivation issues for managers


of HSO
Entering the organization: attractiveness
Remaining in the org.: attachment and
attractiveness
Attendance: motivation of employee to
work regularly, punctually and predictably
Performance: quality of work and output
Citizenship behaviors: cooperation,
making positive statements, avoiding
wastage, protecting fellow employees and
org. property.
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Characteristics of motivation

May be financial or non-financial


Unending process
Determined by human needs
Can not be applied to a frustrated
person (???)
A psychological process
Total, not partial

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Importance of motivation
Peoples develop willingness to
work
Absenteeism would be decreased
Labor turn over would be
decreased
Efficient or qualified personnel
would be attracted to the ogns

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Importance of motivation
Good labor relations
KAP of employee is improved
People develop sense of
belongingness
Finally the ogns can utilize the
factors of production to the
maximum

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Guidelines for effective


motivation
Manager must actively and intentionally
motivate their sub-ordinate.
Manager should understand their own
strength and limitation before
attempting to modify those of others.
Manager must recognize that
employees have d/t motives and
abilities.

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Guidelines for effective


motivation
Reward should be r/t performance, not
seniority or other non-merit based
considerations.
Jobs should be designed to offer
challenge and variety.
Sub-ordinate must clearly understand
what is expected of them.
Mgt should foster an orgnal culture
oriented to performance.

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Motivators in work place


The six motivator in work place
1. The work itself
2. Self improvement
3. Recognition
4. Advancement
5. Achievement
6. Responsibility
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