You are on page 1of 43

UNIT-III

Staffing: concept , system approach, manpower


planning, job design, recruitment & selection, training
& development, performance appraisal
Directing: concept, direction and supervision
Motivation: concept, motivation and performance,
theories of motivation, approaches for improving
motivation, pay and job performance, quality of work
life, morale building
STAFFIN
G
Staffing is the process, through
which competent employees are
selected, properly trained,
effectively developed, suitably
rewarded and their efforts
harmoniously integrated towards
achieving the objectives of the
business.
NATURE/FEATURES OF STAFFING
 Staffing is the function of management
 It is an integral part of management process
 It is never ending function of management
 It is concerned with human resources of an
organization
 Staffing is the pervasive function of management
 Staffing is difficult and tactful function, distinct
from physical factors
 Staffing is concerned with the optimum utilization
of human resources
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF
STAFFING
 Facilitating discovery of competent staff
 Ensuring maximum productivity
 Developing personnel for shouldering
growth responsibilities
 Meeting future requirements of talented
personnel
 Job satisfaction due to proper placement
 Maximum utilization of work force
 Supplying information regarding transfer,
promotion, retirement, death, demotion
etc
MANPOWER PLANNING
In the words of Thomas H. Patten
manpower planning is," the process
by which an organization ensures
that is has the right number of
people and the right kind of people,
at right places, and at right time
doing things for which they are
economically most useful.”
IMPORTANCE OF MANPOWER
PLANNING

 Defining future personnel need


 Coping with changes
 Providing base for developing
talents
 Increasing investment in human
resources
 Forcing top management to involve
in staffing
MANPOWER PALNNING PROCESS

ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND PLANS

MANPOWER
PLANNING

FORECASTING PREPARING
MANPOWER MANPOWER
REQUIREMENT INVENTORY

IDENTIFICATION OF
MANPOWER GAP

SURPLUS SHORTAGE OF
MANPOWER MANPOWER

ACTION PLANS FOR


BRIDGING GAP
JOB DESIGN
METHODS

JOB ROTATION

JOB
JOB JOB DESIGN ENLARGEMENT
SIMPLFICATION

JOB ENRICHMENT
RECRUITMENT

In the words of filippo,” recruitment


is the process of searching for
prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for jobs in
the organization.”
TECHIQUES OF RECRUITMENT
 Direct method-scouting
 In-direct method
 Third party method
 Internet recruitment
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
 Training: training is the organized
procedure by which the knowledge,
ability, competence, skill personality and
productivity are increased.
 Development: management
development is all those and programmes
when recognized and controlled, have
sustained influence in changing the
capacity of the individual to perform his
assignment better and in doing so are
likely to increase his potential for future
assignments.
ROLE OF TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT

 Increase in efficiency
 Increase in morale of employee
 Better human relation
 Reduce supervision
 Increased organization ability and
flexibility
TYPES OF TRAINING
 Orientation
 Safety
 Promotional
 Refresher
 Remedial
 Induction
TECHNIQUES OF TRAINING
ON THE JOB OFF THE JOB

Coaching
Job instruction
Demonstration
Vestibule training
Case study
Apprenticeship
Seminar
Internship
conferences
Simulation training
PERFORMACE APPRAISAL
 CHARACTERTISTICS
• It is a continuous process
• It is a systematic examination of
the employees
• It is a process consisting at a series
of step
OBJECTIVE OF PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL

 Salary increase
 Promotion
 Training and development
 Feedback
 Pressure on employees
PEFORMANCE APPRAISAL
PROCESS
DIRECTING
According to Earnest dale," directing is
telling what to do and seeing that they
do it to the best of their ability.”
FEATURES/NATURE OF DIRECTION
 Direction is related to performance
 Direction is pervasive function of
management at all levels
 Direction is a continuous activity
 Direction is an effective supervision and
leadership
 Direction is activating and motivating
force
 Communication is the basis for successful
direction
IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTION
 Direction deals with human factor
 Direction initiates action
 Direction integrates employees efforts
 Direction facilitates changes
 Direction is important at all levels of the
management
 Direction is helpful in making effective
plans
 Direction is the means of motivation
 Direction provides stability to the
enterprise
ELEMENTS OF DIRECTION
 SUPERVISION
 MOTIVATION
 LEADERSHIP
 COMMUNICATION
PRINCIPLES
 RELATING TO  RELATING TO
PURPOSE OF DIRECTION PROCESS
DIRECTION • Unity of command
• Maximum individual • Managerial form of
communication
contribution
• Appropriateness of direction
• Harmony of objective technique
• Efficiency of direction • Use of informal organization
• Leadership
• Follow through
TECHNIQUES
 ORDERS AND INSTRUCTION
 FOLLOW UP ORDERS AND
INSTRUCTION
 STANDARD PRACTICE AND
PROCEDURES
 BEHAVIOURAL PATTERN
MOTIVATION
According to Dalton E. Mc.
Farland, “motivation refers to
the ways in which urges,
drives , desires, aspirations,
striving or needs direct,
control or explain the behavior
of human beings.”
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

MASLOW’S NEEDS THEORY


HEZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASLOW’S
NEED THEORY AND HEZBERG
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY

EXISTENCE RELATEDNESS GROWTH


EQUITY THEORY

James Stacy Adams – 1965


Assumption
 The worker wants to get a fair
reward for their efforts
 They would compare their rewards
with rewards of another who put in
similar efforts
FORMULA

PERSON’S OUTCOME = OTHER’S OUTCOME


PERSONS’S INPUT OTHER’S INPUT
CONDITON OF INEQUITY
o NEGATIVE
PERSON’S OUTCOME < OTHER’S OUTCOME
PERSONS’S INPUT OTHER’S INPUT

o POSTIVE
PERSON’S OUTCOME > OTHER’S OUTCOME
PERSONS’S INPUT OTHER’S INPUT
MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y

 McGregor, an
American social
psychologist ,
proposed theories
on behaviour of
individuals at work
,he has formulated
2 models X and Y
THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS
 The average human being has an inherent dislike
of work and will avoid it if he/she can
 Most people must be controlled/threatened if they
are to work hard
 The average human prefers to be directed,
dislikes responsibility, is unambiguous, and
desires security above everything else
THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS
 Effort in work is as natural as work and
play
 Control and punishment are not the only
ways to make people work man will direct
himself if he is committed to the goals of
the org
 If a job is satisfying then the result will be
commitment to the organisation
 The average man learns not only to
accept but to seek responsibility
SO… managerial style can be
seen as:-

X MANAGERIAL STYLE Y

 Manager has  Manager has Theory Y


Theory X attitude towards staff
attitude toward  Workers are creative
staff  Workers given
responsibility
 No worker
initiative
 Autocratic
The problem with X
 X relies on money to motivate
 Once the need for money subsides
the drive for motivation is lost
 Does not allow workers to reach
higher levels of motivation as
shown by Maslow
Implications for management
 Decentralisation and Delegation can
be used freely in a Y environment
 Delayering and reduction in
management levels – flatter
structures
 Job enlargement – broadening the
scope of an employee’s job adds
variety
McClelland NEED THEORY
 David.C.McClelland – 1940s

Power Affiliation Achievement


 NEED FOR POWER
• Differentiate from other
• Actual achievement of goal is less
important than means by which
goals are achieve
• Position of influence and control
 NEED FOR AFFILIATION
• Important part of organization
• Interpersonal relationship
 NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
• Goal oriented
• Needs immediate feedback
• Moderate task taken
• Dislike high risk
• Dislike easy task