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UNIT- IV

 Leadership: the core of leadership, influence, functions


of leadership, leadership style, leadership development
 Communication: communication process, importance of
communication, communication channels,
communication barriers
 Controlling: concept, types, methods: pre control:
concurrent control, post control, an integrated control
system, the quality: concept factors affecting quality,
developing a quality control system, total quality control,
pre-control of inputs, concurrent control of operations,
post control of outputs
LEADERSHIP
According to Chester
barnard, ”leadership is
the quality of behavior
of individuals, whereby
they guide people or
their activities in
organizing efforts”.
IMPORTANCE
 Developing team spirit
 Establishing relationship between top
management and subordinates
 Dynamic direction
 Workers’ friend, philosopher and guide
 Modifier of behavior
QULAITIES OF A LEADER
 Intelligence
 Handsome physical appearance
 Self-confidence
 Vision and foresight
 Maturity
 Dynamic and dominating personality
 Positive attitude
 Human touch
Difference between management
& leadership
POINTS OF MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP
DIFFERNCE
1.SCOPE Wider scope Limited scope

2.Authority Directs the employees Exercises his influence


through formal authority through informal
authority
3.Relationship Between the manager between the leader and
and the subordinates the followers
4.Structure Formal structure Both formal and informal

5.importance Necessary at every Not essential


enterprise
6.dominance All managers are leaders all leaders are not
managers
STYLE OF LEADERSHIP
 AUTOCRATIC
 PARTICIPATIVE
 FREE REIN
 DEMOCRATIC
 BEUROCRATIC
 CHARISMATIC
“communication is the exchange of facts, ideas,
opinions or emotions by two or more persons”
- Newman and Summer
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
TYPES OF COMMUNCATION

FORMAL COMMUNICATION INFORMALCOMMUNICATION


BASED UPON DIRECTION BASED UPON EXPRESSION
1. Downward 1. Grapevine
2. Upward 2. Verbal
3. Horizontal 3. Gestural
4. Diagonal
Based upon expression written
CHANNELS OF
COMMUNICATION
 ORAL COMMUNICATION
a) Direct Personal Contact
ii. Personal conversation
iii. Group meeting
iv. Departmental meetings
v. Inter-departmental meetings
b) Through Automatic Machines
i. Signals
ii. Telephone/mobile
iii. Internal telephone system
iv. Dictating machine
c) Other Public Relation Method
i. Lectures
ii. Interviews
iii. Conferences
iv. Films and public addresses etc.
COMMUNCATION PROCESS
IMPORTANCE OF
COMMUNCATION
 Prompt decision and immediate execution
 Possibility of maximum output at minimum cost
 Co-ordination of activities
 Effective leadership
 Helping in the adoption of definite line of action
 Sound industrial relation and co-operation
 Democratic method
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
 LANGUAGE BARRIERS
 PHYSICAL BARRIERS
 DISTANCE BARRIERS
 ATTITUDE BARRIERS
 ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS
 MECHANICAL BARRIERS
 DISTORTION BARRIERS
MEASURES TO OVERCOME
BARRIERS OF
COMMUNICATION
 DIRECT CONTACT
 UNIFORM LANGUAGE
 REMOVING MECHANICAL DEFECTS
 INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
 MUTUAL TRUST
 DEVELOPMENT OF LISTENING HABITS
 FACE-TO-FACE COMMUNICATION
CONTROLLING
Controlling is seeing
that the actual
performance
corresponds to
expected
performance. In this
way, it is a
comparison and
verification process
of the actual
performance with the
planned performance.
IMPORTANCE
 Adjustment in operation
 Policy verification
 Managerial responsibilities
 Psychological pressure
 Coordination in action
 Organizational efficiency & effectiveness
MANAGEMENT CONTROL PROCESS

ANALYSIS OF
DESIRED IMPLEMENTATION CORRECTIVE
CAUSES OF
PERFORMACE OF CORRECTION ACTION PLAN
DEVIATION

ACTUAL MEASUREMENT COMPARISON OF IDENTIFICATION


PERFORMANCE OF ACTUAL AND OF DEVIATION
PERFORMANCE STANDARD
TYPES OF CONTROL
 STRATEGIC CONTROL
 OPERATIONAL CONTROL
STAGES OF CONTROL

CONCURRENT
CONTROL
FEED FORWARD
CONTROL

OUTPUT
PROCESSING

INPUT

FEEDBACK
DESIGNING OF EFFECTIVE
CONTROL SYSTEM
 Integrating strategic planning & control
system
 Identifying strategic control points
 Organizational communication
 Motivational dynamics
ESSENTIAL OF EFFECTIVE
CONTROL SYSTEM
 Reflecting organizational needs
 Forward looking
 Objective
 Flexible
 Economical
 Simple
 Motivating
 Reflecting organizational pattern
 Pointing out exception at critical point