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AIR LAW & ATC PROCEDURES

Chapter 10
Aerodromes (Annex 14, Volume 1)

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Aerodrome Reference Codes

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Strength of Pavements

Relevant to aircraft with a ramp mass of more than 5,700 kg. These aircraft
are assigned an aircraft classification number (ACN).
Operators are able to compare ACN values with the aerodrome pavement
classification number (PCN).

The pavement classification number (PCN) below may be decoded as

follows;

PCN 80 / R / B / W / T
Sub-grade strength

Evaluation method

Rigid pavement
Pavement classification number

Maximum tyre pressure category

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TORA Take-off Run Available;

Runway Definitions

The length of runway declared by the


State to be available and suitable for the
ground run of an aeroplane taking off,
TODA Take-off Distance Available;
The length of the take-off run available
plus the length of the clearway available.
(Not greater than 1.5 x TORA),
ASDA Accelerate Stop Distance Available;
The length of the take-off run available
plus the stopway, (TORA+STOPWAY)
LDA Landing Distance Available;
The distance from the nominated threshold of the runway to the nearest point
in the direction of landing at which the surface will not bear the aircrafts weight,
or at which point there is an obstacle.
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Runway Definitions

Clearway;
Begins at the end of the take-off run available and
should extend laterally at least 75 m on each side of
the extended centre line of the runway.

75m

Stopway;
75m

A stopway shall have the same width as the


runway with which it is associated.
Movement Area;
It is the area where take-off, landing and taxiing
of aircraft occurs.
It consists of the maneuvering area as well as the
apron(s).

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Runway Definitions

AL 10.1 TORA, TODA, ASDA and LDA shall be calculated to the nearest meter or foot for a runway
intended for use by international commercial air transport.

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Runway with displaced threshold, Clearway and stopway

150 m

AL
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Water on Runways

Damp - The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture,


Wet

- The surface is soaked, but there is no standing water,

Wet with Patches - Significant patches of standing water are visible,


Flooded - Excessive standing water is visible.

Frozen Water

The three defined states of frozen water are;


Snow,
Slush,
Ice.
Whenever frozen water affects a RWY, the condition of the RWY should
be assessed, and the friction coefficient measured.
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Runway End Safety Area (RESA) and grading of runway strips

A strip length should extend before the threshold and beyond the end of the
runway or stopway for a distance of at least;
60 m where the code number is 2, 3, 4 and 60 m where the code number is 1
and the runway is used for instrument operations,
30 m for code number is 1 and the runway is not for instrument operations.

A strip width including a precision approach runway shall, whenever practicable,


extend laterally to a distance of at least;
150 m where the code number is 3 or 4

75 m where the code number is 1 or 2


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Instrument Runway

One of the following types of runways intended for the operation of aircraft
using instrument approach procedures;
Non-precision approach runway,
Precision Approach Runway, Category I,
Precision Approach Runway, Category II,
Precision Approach Runway, Category III,

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Taxiway Categories

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Taxiway

Taxiways are provided to permit the safe and expeditious surface movement of A/C,
Changes in taxiway direction should be as few and as small as possible,

The design of taxiway curves (bends) are such that in


normal taxiing, the cockpit of the aircraft remains over the
taxiway centreline markings,
Extra taxiway width is added to allow the outer main
wheels to remain safely on paved surfaces during turns,

AL 10.4

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Indicators and signalling devices

A wind direction indicator must be visible from a height of


300 m in flight and from the maneuvering area. Minimum 3.6 m
length and 0.90 m diameter at larger the end.
Signaling lamp. Should be capable of producing red, green
and white lights. Must be able to give a signal in one color
followed by signals in either of the other two colors.

The signal area must be seen from aircraft 1000 ft AGL at an


angle of 10 degrees above the horizontal. It must be visible
from the air!!!

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Runway Markings

Runway markings are white and taxiway marking


and aircraft stand markings are yellow.
Runway centre line markings are uniform stripes
and gaps. The combined length of a stripe and a gap
shall not be less than 50 m or more than 75 m.
The length of each stripe shall be at least equal to
the length of a gap or 30 m, whichever is greater.
Stripe width:
.90 m on CAT II and III
.45 m on CAT I or Non-precision type 3 and 4
.30 m on Non-precision type 1 and 2, and all
non-instrument runways.
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Runway Markings

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Threshold Marking Runway Stripes

Threshold markings shall be provided at the threshold of paved instrument


runways and paved non-instrument runways codes 3 & 4,
The stripes of the threshold marking shall commence 6 m from the threshold,
The number of stripes shall be in accordance with the runway width as follows;

TAL 10.4 Length and width relation to


markings / stripes
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Transverse Stripe

Where a threshold is displaced


from the extremity of the runway, a
transverse stripe should be added to
the threshold marking,

A transverse stripe shall not be less


than 1.80 m wide.
Arrows

Where a threshold is permanently


displaced, arrows shall be provided on
the portion of the runway before the
displaced threshold,
Where a threshold is permanently
displaced, all markings prior to the
displaced threshold shall be obscured.

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Threshold Markings

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Pre Threshold Marking

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Width of Runway

CODE LETTER
TYPE OF
RUNWAY

1 (a)

18 m

18m

23m

2 (a)

23m

23m

30m

30m

30m

30m

45m

45m

45m

45m

60m

(a) For a precision runway, w=30 m where code is 1 and 2

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Aiming Point Marking

An aiming point marking shall be provided


at each approach end of a paved instrument
runway where the code number is 2, 3 and 4.

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Touchdown Zone Markings

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Markings

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Taxiway markings

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Aerodrome Identification Beacon

An identification beacon shall be provided at an aerodrome which is intended


for use at night and can not be easily identified from the air by other means,
The identification beacon must be visible from all directions and colored green
at a civil aerodrome (yellow for water),
Military aerodromes may be red,
Identification characters are transmitted by Morse Code.
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Simple Approach Lighting System

ALS provide the basic means to

transition from instrument flight to visual


flight for landing,
ALS are a configuration of signal lights
starting at the landing threshold and
extending

into

the

approach

area

distance of 2400 - 3000 feet for precision


instrument runways and 1400 - 1500 feet
for non-precision instrument runways.
Each center line shall consist of either;
a single source,
A barette at least 3 m in length.
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Precision Approach Cat I Lighting System

The Centre line and crossbar lights


of a Precision Approach Cat I
Lighting System shall be fixed
lights showing variable white.

(Barettes at least 4 m)
AL 10.11

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Precision Approach Cat II and III Lighting System

AL 10.12 Inner 300 m approach and


runway lighting for precision approach
runway categories II and III

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Precision Approach Cat II and III Lighting System

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Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)

The VASI is a system of

lights so arranged to provide


visual

descent

information

guidance

during

the

approach to a runway.

These lights are visible

from 3-5 NM during the day

VASI Variations

and up to 20 NM or more at
night.

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Precision Approach Path Indicator Lights (PAPI)

The PAPI uses light units


similar to the VASI but are
installed in a single row of either
two or four light units,

These systems have an


effective visual range of about
5 NM during the day and up to
20 NM at night.

The row of light units is


normally installed on the left side
of the runway and the glide path
indications are as depicted.

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PAPI Lights

When on or close to the approach slope, see the


two units nearest the runway as red and the two
units farthest from the runway as white,
When above the approach slope, see the one unit
nearest the runway as red and the three units
farthest from the runway as white, and when further
above the approach slope, see all units as white,
When below the approach slope, see the three
units nearest the runway as red and the unit farthest
from the runway as white, and when further below
the approach slope, see all units as red,
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PAPI Lights

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RWY Edge Lights

Runway edge lights shall be fixed


lights showing variable white or yellow,
except that in case of a displaced
threshold (red), the lights between the
beginning of the runway and the
displaced threshold will be red in the
approach direction,

The lights shall be uniformly spaced


in rows at intervals of not more than 60
m for an instrument runway, and at
intervals of not more than 100 m for a
non-instrument runway.
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Runway Threshold Lights

Runway threshold and wing bar lights


shall be fixed unidirectional lights
showing green in the direction of
approach to the runway,
Wing bar lights shall be provided on a
non-instrument
or
non-precision
approach runway where the threshold is
displaced and runway threshold lights
are required, but are not provided.

RWY End Lights

Runway end lights shall be fixed


unidirectional lights showing red in the
direction of the runway,
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RWY Centre Line Lights

They shall be provided on a precision


approach runway category II or III,

They shall be fixed lights showing variable


white from the threshold to the point 900 m
from the runway end, alternate red and
variable white from 900 m to 300 m from the
runway end, and red from the 300 m to the
runway end.

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Taxiway Lighting

Taxiway Edge Light - Blue

Taxiway Center Line Light - Green

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RWY Touchdown Zone Lights

They shall be provided on a precision approach runway category II or III,


Touchdown Zone Lights shall be fixed unidirectional lights showing
variable white,

Stop Bars

A stop bar shall be provided at every taxi-holding position serving a runway


when it is intended that the runway will be used in runway visual range
conditions less than a value of 350 m,
Stop Bars shall be located across the taxiway at the point where it is
desired that traffic stop.
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Runway Guard Lights (Wig-Wags)

Runway Guard Lights shall be

provided

at

each

taxiway/runway

intersection intended for use in;


RVR conditions less than a value
of 550 m where a stop bar is not
installed,

RVR

conditions

of

values

between 550 m and 1200 m where


the traffic density is high.

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Mandatory instruction signs

A mandatory Instruction Sign shall be provided


to identify a location beyond which an aircraft
taxiing or vehicle shall not proceed unless
authorized by the aerodrome control tower,

A mandatory Instruction Sign shall consist of an


inscription in white on a red background.

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Information signs

Information Signs shall include; direction


signs, location signs, destination signs,
runway exit signs and runway vacated signs,
An Information Sign shall consist of an
inscription in black on a yellow background,

A Location Sign shall consist of an

inscription in yellow on a black background,

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Examples of sign positions at taxiway/runway intersections

AL 10.19

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Example of signs

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Example of signs

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Example of signs

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Boundary Markers

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Basic marking patterns

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Examples of marking and lighting of tall structures

Low intensity obstacle lights on


fixed objects shall be fixed red lights,

Medium-intensity

obstacle

lights

shall be flashing red lights, except


that when used in conjunction with
highintensity obstacle lights they
shall be flashingwhite lights.

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Lighting of buildings

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Runway Distance Marker

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Rescue and Fire Fighting

The principal objective of a rescue and fire fighting service is to save


lives,

Aerodromes are divided into 10 different categories relating to the

amount of rescue & fire fighting vehicles,

These categories are based on the longest aeroplanes using the

aerodrome and there fuselage width.

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AYJET 13TH
JETSTREAM

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