You are on page 1of 45

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This is an elementary course in marketing


which builds the foundation of marketing
to students pursuing business
programmes. It aimed at exposing
students to the theory and practice of
marketing discipline as a result develop
students who can analyse, plan,
implement and control marketing efforts at
different situations in the business
environment.

THE LEARNING OUTCOMES


At the end of the course, students should be able
to:
Explain basic concepts and practice of marketing
in general.
Identify and interpret customer need in terms of
goods or services.
Describe the idea of what marketing field entails.
Articulate the administration of marketing mix.
Formulate effective plans for implementation and
control of marketing strategies.

DELIVERY MODE

Lectures
Seminars
Group discussions and presentations
Case Studies/Field Visits
Self Study

EVALUATION MODE
1st Assignment
10%
2nd Assignment
10%
1st Test
15%
2nd Test
15%
End of semester Examination 50%
Total
100%

THE MAIN READINGS


REQUIRED READINGS
Kotler P. and Keller, K. (2008): Marketing
Management, 13th Edition, Prentice Hall-London
UK,
Baker, M. & Hart, S. (2007): Marketing: An
Introductory Text, 6th Edition. McMillan
Education Ltd, Hong Kong
Jobber, D. (2006) Principles and Practices of
marketing, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall-London-UK

RECOMMENDED READINGS
Cohen, W. A. (2003) The Marketing Plan,
John Wiley & Son, Inc. New York.
Cunningham, H.C. and I. C. M Cunningham
(2005), Marketing Principles and
Application, Mc Graw Hill, Ryer Son Ltd.

COURSE CONTENT
1. An overview of marketing
2. Marketing management process
3. Examination of marketing environment
4. Market characteristics and buyer
behaviour
5. Market measurement and forecasting
6. Market segmentation.
7. Understanding marketing mix
8. Marketing for non profit organisations

LECTURER: MNZAVA, J.A

My Contacts
Box 5151 Morogoro
Tel: 0659116666; 0777767779
E-mail: jamnzava@yahoo.com

My Time Table
BUS 110
BECA I
LT.3

BUS 205
BUS 275
BBA II MKT BBA II ED
B.108
(B.108)

MO
N

BUS 5112
MBA CM

18-19

TUE

17-19 A
CR 11

17-18

WE
D

11-13 C
B108
18-19

13-15

THR 11-13 LT 3
FRD 11-13 B

11-13

MC

13-15

MC

14-16 (A)
16-18 (B)

Mbeya

YOUR CONTACTS
ANDREW JAMBIA
Phon: 0686664786/0754217600
Email: mkunde10112011@gmail.com
Class email:
becaproffessionals@gmail.com
Happy George
Phone number 0755245350
E MAIL: happygeorge68@yahoo.com

1.0 An Overview of
Marketing

1.1 Marketing defined


1.2 Key concepts/terms of
marketing
1.3 Micro and Macro Marketing
1.4 Marketing evolution or Business
Philosophies
1.5 Application and significance of
Marketing.

1.1 Marketing Defined


Marketing is a social process through
which individuals and groups obtain what
they need and want through creating and
exchange of products and value with
others (Kotler)
Marketing consists of performance of
business activities that direct the flow of
goods and services from producers to
consumers or users (Committee on
Definitions)

Marketing is a total system of business


activities designed to plan, price,
promote and distribute want satisfying
products and services to present and
potential customers.(Stanton)
Marketing consists of individual and
organizational activities aimed at
facilitating and expediting exchanges
within a set of dynamic environmental
factors.(Pride and Ferrel)

1.2 Key Concepts

Marketing as a social process


Individuals and groups
Needs, Wants and Demand
Exchange process
Products
Marketing Activities
Marketing Variables

Marketing and Exchange


Definition: Exchange is the act of
obtaining a desired product from someone
by offering something in return.
Conditions: (1.) Participation of two or
more parts, (2.) Possession of something
of value, (3.) Ability to communicate,
(4.) Freedom to accept or reject the offer,
(5.) Appropriateness and desirability

1.3 Micro and Macro


Marketing
The concept of micro and macro marketing
were pioneered by Perreault and Jerome
Mac Carthy in their seminar book Basic
Marketing
Micro marketing is a strategy used to target
a small segment of consumers with
specific needs for products in the market
Macro marketing is always large in scope. It
addresses issues at the nexus of the
market and society.

Micro marketing is more concerned with how firms make


decisions on what product to make and market, methods
of production, brand management, pricing decisions,
channels of distribution, the consumer behavior of
individuals and packing and promotional decisions
Macro marketing on the other hand is more concerned
with marketing and social responsibilities, overall
consumer behavior patterns, market regulation laws,
efficiency of the marketing systems, socially admirable
advertising techniques and social responsibilities.

1.4 Marketing Evolution

General Introduction
Marketing Philosophies
Marketing Concept
Expanded Marketing Philosophy

1.4.1 General Introduction


Marketing happened for the 1st time
when Adam was able to
communicate with Eve and there was
an exchange of emotion, love, care
and passion. Though there was no
profit motive there was a substantial
exchange for mutual benefit between
both the parties.

Whenever there was surplus of


possession or outputs people started
exchanging them for the products of their
choice
In the subsistence economy marketing
was a peripheral activity
Marketing developed more after industrial
revolution whereby a new class of people
called salesmen emerged.

1950s- The decade of advertising


1960s- The decade of the pure marketing
manager
1970s- Marketing evolved from practice
to a discipline of learning led by Philip
Kotlers seminal text Marketing
Management
1980s- Strategic Marketing
1990s- Service Marketing
2000- Internet Marketing

1.4.2 Marketing
Philosophies

Production Concept
Product Concept
Sales Concept
Marketing Concept
Societal Marketing Concept

1.4.3 Marketing Concept


Definition of the marketing concept
Basic Elements of the marketing
concept
Problems of Implementing Marketing
Concept
Differences between Selling and
Marketing Concepts

Basic Elements of the


Marketing Concept
A firm must find what will satisfy customers
Creating satisfying products
Get the products into the hands of
customers
Continue to alter, adapt, and develop
products to keep pace with customers
changing desires and preferences
Consider long term desires as well.
Coordinate all activities

Problems of Implementing
the Marketing Concept
Not possible to produce product which
satisfy all customer, because differ in
desire
Product development, lack of technology
Satisfaction of one segment can cause
unsatisfication of other segment, eg use
of cigallate.
Decline of employee morale, due to
coordination.

Differences between
Marketing and Selling
Concepts
Orientation

SELLING
CONCEPT

MARKETING
CONCEPT

Volume

Profit

Time Horizon Short term


profitability

Long term
profitability

Means

Hard selling
promotion

Integrated
marketing

Focus

Needs of the seller

Needs of the buyer

Start
Emphasis

Existing Products
Achieving More
Sales

Target Customers
Customer
Satisfaction

1.4.4 Expanded Marketing


Philosophy
Expanded marketing philosophies are well
explained by a holistic marketing concept.
Holistic concept relates to a study of the
whole instead of a separation into parts.
The four components that characterize
holistic marketing are relationship
marketing, internal marketing, integrated
marketing and socially responsive
marketing.

1.5 Application and


Significance of Marketing
To Individuals: Satisfaction, Accessibility,
Information and ultimately High standard of
living
To Organizations: Profitability, market share,
competitiveness, Sales Revenue, Liquidity,
Relationships, Innovativeness, and Information.
To the Society: Employment, Economic Growth,
High Standard of Living, Political and Economic
ties.

REVIEW QUESTION
Micro marketing pits companies at
odds with the goals macro
marketing. Activities that make sense
at the micro level may be hard to
justify at the macro level. Discuss.

2.0 Marketing Management


Process
2.1 Identification of Marketing
Opportunities
2.2 Researching the Target Markets
2.3 Developing the Marketing
Strategies
2.4 Planning the Marketing Tactics
2.5 Implementing and Controlling the
Marketing Effort

2.1 Identification of
Marketing Opportunities
In identification and analyzing marketing
opportunities, marketing personnel make careful
observations about the changing marketing
environment and acquire a deep understanding
of how consumer markets and organizational
markets arrive at their buying decisions. The
elements of the marketing environment to be
analyzed are economic, political, legal, cultural,
social, technological and demographic factors.

2.2 Researching the target


markets
Researching
and
selecting
target
markets, requires marketing personnel to
engage in formal marketing research and
data collection, careful measurement of
market size and future sales and profits,
and careful segmentation of the market
so that the most attractive market
segments can be selected and proper
positions taken by the company in each
markets segment.

2.3 Developing the


Marketing Strategies
Marketing strategy is the marketing
logic by which the business unit expects
to achieve its marketing objectives.
Developing marketing strategy consists
of marketing decisions on the businesss
marketing expenditures, marketing mix
and marketing allocations in relation to
expected environmental and
competitive conditions

2.4 Planning the Marketing


Tactics
Planning marketing tactics calls for marketing
personnel to fine tune the marketing mix
elements of product, price, place, and
promotion so that they are cost effective in
reaching the marketing objectives.
In planning marketing tactics marketing
managers need to take care of synergism.
Synergism is the cooperative action of discrete
elements of the marketing system such as that
the total effect is greater than the sum of the
effects taken independently.

2.5 Implementing and


Controlling the Marketing
Effort

Implementing and controlling the


marketing efforts calls for developing
a marketing organization, staffing it,
assigning responsibilities for
implementing all the activities in the
plans performance in the market
place, and taking corrective action
when it is warranted (need).

3.0 Marketing
Environment
3.1 Macro Environment
3.2 Micro Environment

4.0 Market Definition


and Buyer Behavior
4.1 Definition of Markets
4.2 Types of Markets and their
Characteristics
4.3 An Overview of Buying Behaviour
4.4 Consumer Buying Behaviour
4.4 Organizational Buying Behaviour

5.0 Market
Measurements and
Forecasting
5.1 Key terms associated with market
measurement
5.2 Market demand, market forecast,
market potential, market share, company
demand, sales forecast and sales potential
5.3 Estimating Current Demand
5.4 Methods of demand Forecasting
5.5 Types of market demand and
appropriate marketing effort

6.0 Market Segmentation


6.1 Market segmentation Meaning.
6.2 Conditions for effective segmentation
6.3 Bases or criteria for market
segmentation
6.4 Marketing targeting
6.5 Product Positioning

7.0 Understanding the


Marketing Mix
7.1 Introduction to marketing mix the
concept
7.2 Product planning and development
7.3 Pricing
7.4 Distribution
7.5 Promotion

7.1 Product Planning and


Development
7.1.1 Definition of Product and
Classifications
7.1.2 Products Mixes and Product Lines
7.1.3 Overview of Branding, Packaging
and Labelling
7.1.4 New Product Development
7.1.5 Product Life Cycle Concept

7. 2 Pricing
7.2.1 Pricing policy objectives
7.2.2 Price Determinants
7.2.3 Pricing Procedures and
Approaches
7.2.4 Pricing Strategies

7.3 Distribution
7.3.1 Channels of Distribution
7.3.2 Physical Distribution
7.3.3 Major Components of Physical
Distribution.

7.4 Promotion
7.4.1 Nature and Importance of Promotion
7.4.2 Communication Process and
promotion.
7.4.3 Promotional mix elements i.e.
advertising, personal selling, sales
promotion and publicity.

8.0 Marketing for Non Profit


Organizations
8.1 Application of marketing in non
profit activities
8.2 Marketing activities in non-profit
organizations
8.3 4Ps for non-profit organization