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ACS for spacecraft design

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You are on page 1of 33

moazam@ist.edu.pk

6/2/15

(ACS)

Feedback Control System

Attitude measurement through sensors

Attitude correction through actuators

Control system or control law

6/2/15

Disturbances that make attitude

control necessary

Torques from solar pressure

Aerodynamics

Magnetic fields

Gravity gradients

Spacecraft activities

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Spin-Stabilized System

Takes advantage of inherent resistance of

spinning body

No disturbance Momentum vector

remains fixed in inertial space

Disturbance vector parallel to momentum

axis causes spin rate to change

Disturbance vector parallel to momentum

axis causes momentum vector to precess

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Spin-Stabilized System

Advantages

Simple, Low cost

Thrust vector control is not required

Spinning supplies scanning motion; necessary for

some instruments

Disadvantage

Pointing accuracy is low

Tight control of moment of inertia is required

Only possible location for solar panels is spinning

body exterior; the area is not exposed to sun all

the time (32%)

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Dual-Spin System

Improves the pointing accuracy of

spin stabilized system

Offers the advantages of a spin

stabilized system

Despin drive assembly is expensive and

failure prone

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Three-Axis Stabilized

System

A typical system uses gyros as

inertial reference and updates them

periodically using star scanning or

horizon scanning

Attitude errors are removed using

reaction wheels

Thrusters are used to provide

positive or negative translations

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Three-Axis Stabilized

System

Advantages

Unlimited pointing capability

Best possible pointing accuracy (>0.001 deg)

Solar panel location and size is not restricted

Can be oriented to illuminate maximum solar panel

area

Disadvantages

Complex, Heavy and High power consumption

More chances of system failure

Thrust vector controlling is required

Redundancy is required

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Gravity-Gradient System

Aligns the spacecraft long vector to the

gravity vector

Gravity gradient torques should be greater

than any other disturbances

Moment of inertia about any 2 axes should

be greater than moment about 3 rd axis

Can be used only under 1000 km

Useful when long life and high reliability

are required

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Gravity gradient

stabilization

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10

Uses a momentum wheel to provide

stiffness in two axes, control in the

third one

Useful for Nadir pointing

Simple and cheaper

Maneuvering capability is very

limited

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11

Disturbance Torques

Solar Torque (35000 km and above)

Momentum exchange between a solar photon

and the spacecraft

Magnetic field of earth and other celestial bodies

Imbalance of gravitational pull on the spacecraft

Source of torque as well as velocity reduction in

LEO

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12

Solar Torque

Momentum exchange between the solar photon

and spacecraft

A force is exerted on the surface

Absorption

Force will be aligned with the sun vector

Specular reflection

Force exerted is normal to the surface

Diffuse reflection

Absorption and reradiation distributed uniformly over

a hemisphere

Net force is exerted normal to the surface

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13

Solar Torque

Absorption

Specular reflection

Diffuse reflection

Ps = Is/c

Is = Incident solar pressure

(1376 W/m2)

Ps = solar pressure (N/m2)

6/2/15

q = reflectance factor

(0~1)

L = centroid of the surface

to center of the mass

14

Example 5.1

Ts = ?

Solar panel = 9 m2

Spacecraft = 1 m2

Attaching Boom = 0.25 m

Angle b/w Sun vector and spacecraft

normal = 20 deg

q = 0.3

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15

Magnetic Torque

of any (external) magnetic field on

Torque

I = current in the coil

A = coil area

B = Earths Magnetic field

= angle between magnetic field lines

and coil perpendicular

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Magnetic Torque

Residual

magnetic field of a

spacecraft is the result of current

loops and residual magnetism in the

metal parts

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B0 = Geo-magnetic field at sea level =

3 x 10-5 T

r0 = radius of earth

r = desired altitude

L = latitude in the magnetosphere

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18

Example 5.2

Spacecraft residual dipole = 2 A-m2

Altitude = 400 km in equatorial orbit

Magnitude of Magnetic moment = ?

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For maximum torque use the least of

Ix ,y (Ix or Iy)

= angle between spacecraft z-axis

and Nadir vector

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20

Example 5.3

Estimate the gravity gradient torque on

Skylab

Mass = 90,505 kg

Height = 35 m

Diameter = 5.4 m

Radius = 2.7 m

Altitude = 442 km

Radius = 5820 km

Attitude error = 5 deg (0.087266 rad)

Iz = Wr2/2 , Ix,y = W(3r2+h2)/12

6/2/15

21

Aerodynamic Drag

Drag force produces torque as well

as reduces velocity

= Atmospheric density kg/m3

Cd= drag coefficient (depends upon

shape, usually 2.5)

A = Area normal to the velocity vector

6/2/15

22

Example 5.4

Drag force on 9 m2 solar panel = ?

Velocity at 400 km = 7.669 km/s

Atm. Density = 1.2 x 10-11 kg/m3

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23

Spacecraft Generated

Torques

Pointing rotation of solar panels /

antennas / cameras

Deployment of solar panels /

antennas

Propellant slosh

Flexible appendages

Reaction wheel imbalance

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24

System Sizing

Actuator sizing is dependent upon the

combined magnitude of disturbance torques

Actuator must have sufficient authority to

counteract the disturbance

An actuator with twice the capability of

disturbance torques would have 100%

control authority

Once the actuators are decided the required

resources for the mission life must be

analyzed

6/2/15

25

Attitude Determination

Methods

Spacecraft axes must be located with

respect to a reference frame

+Z axis is anti-Nadir (parallel to r)

+X axis in direction of motion (parallel to V)

+Y axis (parallel to r x V direction)

Euler angles

Relationship between reference frame and

the spacecraft frame are defined by three

rotation angles

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26

Attitude Determination

Methods

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27

Euler Angles

Set of three angles and a sequence

of rotation such that one coordinated

system can be rotated into another

Both magnitude and sequence of

rotation are important

Altering the sequence can change the

resulting rotation

12 different Euler sets result in the same

relative position

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28

Euler Angles

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(DCM)

Product of three Euler rotations

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30

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Disadvantage of DCM

Performing a rotation requires

27 Multiplications

15 Additions

29 Trigonometric Evaluations

computations

Use Quaternions

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32

Quaternions

Alternative

to DCM

Uses Eulers theorem

Any series of rotations of a rigid body

can be expressed as a single rotation

about a fixed axis

by a vector

A scalar angle defines rotation about

that fixed axis

6/2/15

33

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