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CHAPTER 2 : CELL STRUCTURE

AND ORGANIZATION
What do they have in common?
Learning 0utcomes
At the of the lesson, students should be able to
1. Draw and label an animal cell and plant cell
2. Identify and list 12 cellular components of
animal cell and plant cell
3. State the function of 12 cellular components in
both cell
4. Compare and contrast an animal cell and a
plant cell
5. Relate the density of certain organelles with
the function of specific cell
What is The Cell
• Basic unit of life
• Building blocks of which living things are
made.
2.1 Cell Structure And Function
Cellular components of animal and
plant cells
• The living component of a cell is called
protoplasm.
• Consist of cytoplasm and nucleus.
• Surrounded by plasma membrane.
• In plant cell,-plus outer boundary called
cell wall.
• Can be seen under light microscope.
• Under new and improved microscope,
scientist are able to see cellular
components in greater detail.
• We can see organelles.
• Organelles are bodies with specialized
functions, suspended in cytoplasm.
Plasma membrane
• Made of protein and phospholipid
• Semi permeable and acts as selective
barrier
• Separates the content of cell with the
outer environment
• Regulates movement of substances in and
out of cytoplasm
Cell wall
• Rigid outer layer that surround the plasma
membrane
• Compose of cellulose, a tough and fibrous
carbohydrate
• Permeable to all fluid
• Give shape to plant cell
• Provide mechanical support
• Protect plant cell from rupturing due to
excessive intake of water
Cytoplasm
• Region between nucleus and plasma
membrane
• Consist of jelly like matrix in which
organelles are suspended.
• Contain organic and inorganic substances
• Medium for biochemical reaction
• Provide substances obtained from
external environment to the organelles
Nucleus
• A large, dense, spherical organelle enclosed by
nuclear envelope
• Contain nucleoplasm and nucleolus
• Nucleoplasm contain chromatin
• Chromosomes carry genetic information-
determine characteristic and function of cell
• Conrol all activities take place in cell
Vacuole
• Fluid-filled sacs which is surrounded by
tonoplast
• Storage place in a cell-water, organic acid,
amino acid, mineral salt, waste product
• Cell sap provide support for herbaceous
plant
• Contractile vacuole help regulate water
balance
Mitochondria
• Small spherical/cylindrical-shaped
organelle
• Involve in cellular respiration and release
energy
Ribosomes
• Compact spherical organelle
• Attached to RER or suspended freely in
cytoplasm
• Site of protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum
• Network of folded membrane forming
interconnected tubules or sacs
• RER and SER
• RER- transport protein made by ribosome
• SER- synthesis of lipid and detoxification
of drug and poison.
Golgi apparatus
• Stack of flattened membranous sacs
• Processing, packaging and transporting
centre of carbohydrate, protein,
phospholipid and glycoprotein
Lysosomes
• Membrane bound sac
• Contain hydrolytic enzymes-digest
macromolecules
• Eliminate worn out cell and damaged
organelles.
• Digest bacteria
Centrioles
• Pair of small cylindrical structures located
just outside nucleus
• Composed of microtubules
• Absent in plant cell
• Involve in cell division
Chloroplast
• Lens shaped
• Contain green pigment chlorophyll
• Chlorophyll trap sunlight and convert light
energy into chemical energy during
photosynthesis
ACTIVITY 1

Matching the cellular components


of animal and plant cells to their
functions.
Comparison between the structure
of animal and plant cells
ACTIVTY 2

Comparing the structure of animal


and plants cell
Discussion
Animal cell Similarities Plant cell

Both cells have nucleus, plasma membrane, ribosomes, rough ER, smooth
ER, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria
Animal cell Differences Plant cell
Flexible/irregular Shape Fixed/regular
Absent Cell wall Present
No large sap vacuole, if Vacuole Large sap vacuole in the centre
present is very small of cell
Absent Chloroplast Present
Glycogen Stored food Starch
Present Centriole Absent
The density of organelles in specific
cells
• Animal and plant are made of different
types of cells which perform different
function.
• For example, nerve cells send nerve
impulses and red blood cell transport
oxygen.
• Abundance of certain organelles is related
to the function of specific cells and the
activity of the organism.
ACTIVITY 3

Relating the density of certain


organelles with the specific
functions of specific cells
Discussion
Cell Function Organelles

Sperm cell Swim toward the ovum Mitochondria


during fertilisation
Muscle cell in bird and Move their wing when Mitochondria
insect flying
Liver cell Detoxify drugs and poison Mitochondria

Pancreatic cells Synthesize and secrete Rough ER


enzymes and hormones
Mesophyll palisade cells Carry out photosynthesis Chloroplast

Cells in meristem Divide actively to produce Mitochondria


new cells during growth

Guard cells and spongy Carry out photosynthesis Chloroplast


mesophyll cells
CONCLUSION
Cell

Density of organelle
Cellular components/organelles
related to

Function of cellular Function of specific


component/organelles cells