You are on page 1of 141

SDH/SONET

ALARMS & PERFORMANCE MONITORING

www.mapyourtech.com

Contents

Standards
Alarms Introductions and Examples
Performance Monitoring Parameters
FAQs

www.mapyourtech.com

Standards
Bell Communications Research (Bellcore, BCR)
prepares equipment standards for North American community

ANSI Committee T1
prepares telecommunications standards (rates and formats)
creator of SONET
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) accredited
sponsored by ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)

ITU-T G.826,G.783

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms Introductions and


Examples

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm Overview

SDH Frame
5

www.mapyourtech.com

1. RS
2. MS
3. HP
4. AU
5. TU
6. LP
7. PPI

V1

V2

V5

The SDH Frame

R
S
O
H

A1

A2

A2

A2

J0

E1

F1

J1

D1

D2

D3

B3

H1

H2

B2

B2

K1

K2

G1

VC-11

VC-12

VC-2

D4

D5

D6

F2

V5

V5

V5

D7

D8

D9

H4

25

34

106

D10

D11

D12

F3

N2

N2

N2

E2

K3

25

34

106

N1

K4

K4

K4

25

34

106

Z1

Z1

Z2

www.mapyourtech.com

H2

Z2

H2

M1

H3

H3

H3

Lower
order VC-n
POH

H1

S1

A1

B1

AU
H1
Pointe
r
B2
M
S
O
H

A1

VC-4 POH

Number of bytes
of data
separating

C2

RSOH [Regenerator Section Overhead]

A1, A2

RS-LOF

Provides a frame alignment pattern [A1 =11110110, A2 = 00101000]. The frame alignment word of an
STM-n frame is 3 X n A1 bytes followed by 3 X n A2 bytes.

J0

RS-TIM

Regenerator section trace. [16 byte frame including CRC7 (1 st byte.) Supports continuity testing
between transmitting and receiving device on each regenerator section.

Z0
B1

Spare. Reserved for future international standardisation.

RS-EXC
RS-DEG

Provides regenerator section monitoring. The regenerator section BIP-8 provides end-to-end error
performance monitoring across an individual regenerator section and is calculated over all bits of the
previous STM-n frame after scrambling. Computed value is placed in B1 byte before scrambling

E1

Provides local orderwire channel for voice communications between regenerators, hubs and remote
terminal locations.

F1

Allocated to users purpose [e.g. temporary data/voice channel connection for special maintenance
applications]

D1-D3

COMMS

192 kb/s message based data communications channel providing administration, monitor, alarm and
maintenance functions between regenerator section termination equipment

B1 Is not supported in OM4000 NEs due to


redundancy and this NE is primarily used as an
www.mapyourtech.com
ADM

SDH Frame

MSOH [Multiplex Section Overhead]

B2

MS-EXC
MS-DEG

Provides multiplex section error monitoring. The BIP-n X 24, of an STM-n frame, provides endto-end error performance monitoring across an individual multiplex section and is calculated
over all bits of the previous STM-n frame except for the first three rows of SOH. Computed
value is placed in B2 byte before scrambling.

K1, K2

MS-AIS
MS-RDI

Two bytes allocated for APS signalling for multiplex section protection.

COMMS

Provides 576 kb/s data communication channel between multiplex section termination
equipment. Used to carry network administration and maintenance information.

D4D12
S1
M1

Synchronisation status messages. S1 [b5-b8] indicates which of the four levels of


synchronisation is being used at the transmit end of a multiplex section.

MS-REI

E2
H1-H3

K2 [b6-b8] contains MS-RDI and MS-AIS status information.

Multiplex section remote error indication [MS-REI]. Conveys the number of B2 errors detected
by downstream equipment.
Provides express orderwire channel for voice communications between multiplex section
terminating equipment

AU-AIS
TU-AIS [TU-3]
AU-LOP
TU-LOP [TU-3]

AU pointer bytes are associated with, but not part of, the MSOH. The pointer contained in H1
and H2 points to the location where the VC-n begins. The last ten bits [b7-b16] of H1, H2 carry
the pointer value [0 to 782]. The H3 bytes are pointer action bytes and carry live information
from a VC4, during the STM-n frame in which negative pointer adjustment occurs

MSP Protocol Bytes


www.mapyourtech.com K1 [b1-4] type of request [b5-8]
channel number
K2 [b1-4] channel

SDH Frame

HO-POH [Higher order path Overhead]

J1

HP-TIM [VC-4]
LP-TIM [VC-3]

The first byte in the virtual container. Its location is indicated by the AU pointer [H1,H2
bytes]. Provides a higher order trail trace identifier [64-byte free format string or 16-byte
frame including CRC7. Supports end-to-end monitoring of a higher order path.

B3

HP-EXC
HP-DEG
LP-EXC+DEG [VC-3]

Provides higher order path error monitoring. The BIP-8 is calculated over all bits of
previous VC-n. Computed value is placed in B3 byte before scrambling.

C2

HP-AIS
LP-AIS [VC-3]
HP-UNEQ+PLM
LP-UNEQ+PLM [VC-3]

High order signal label. Indicates composition or the maintenance status of the associated
container.

G1

HP-REI + RDI
LP-REI + RDI [VC-3]

Higher order path status. Send status and performance monitoring information from
receiving path terminating equipment to originating equipment. Allows status and
performance of two-way path to be monitored at either end. G1 REI [b1-b4] RDI [b5]

F2
H4

Higher order path user channel. Allocated for network operator communications between
path terminations.

HP-LOM

Position indicator. Multiframe phase indication for TU structured payloads. H4 [b7-b8]

F3

Higher order path user channel. Allocated for network operator communications between
path terminations

K3

Higher order path automatic protection switching [b1-b4]. The rest of the bits [b5-b8] are
allocated for future use.

N1

Higher order tandem connection monitoring. There are two possible implementations
described in Annex C and Annex D of ITU-T G.707. In Annex C, the N1 byte provides a
tandem connection incoming error count [IEC] and the remaining four bits provide an endto-end data link

www.mapyourtech.com

SDH Frame

LO-POH [Lower order path Overhead]

V5

[VC-12]
LP-AIS

Provides BIP-2 error checking, signal label and path status information.

J2

LP-TIM [VC-12]

Lower order trail trace identifier [16 byte frame including CRC7]. Supports endto-end monitoring of a lower order path

[b5-b7]
LP-REI
[b3]
LP-RDI
[b8]
LP-EXC
[b1-b2]
LPUNEQ [b5-b7]
LP-PLM
[b5-b7]

N2

Lower order tandem connection monitoring. Contains BIP-2 error checking, AIS,
tandem connection REI [TC-REI], outgoing error indication [OEI] and a 76-byte
multiframe containing a tandem connection access point identifier [TC-APid].

K4

Lower order path automatic protection switching [b1-b4] and enhanced remote
defect indication [b5-b7].

SDH Frame
10

www.mapyourtech.com

Anomalies, defects and alarms

Alarm
A human observable indication that draws attention to a failure usually giving an

indication of the severity of the fail


The report to the user of a defect

Anomaly
The smallest discrepancy which can be observed between the actual and desired

characteristics of an item. The occurrence of a single anomaly does not constitute an


interruption in the ability to perform a required function. Anomalies are used as the
input for the Performance Monitoring [PM] process and for the detection of defects
A single occurrence of, or commencement of a pre-defined condition

Defect
The density of anomalies has reached a level where the ability to perform a required

function has been interrupted. Defects are used as input for PM, the control of
consequent actions, and the determination of faults cause
The persistent or repeated occurrence of an anomaly for a pre-defined
duration or number of repetitions

11

www.mapyourtech.com

Defect naming

The origin of defect naming can be confusing.


The following points should help when dealing with the nomenclature
Defects derived from path overheads begin: LP, HP, LPOM or HPOM.
Defects derived from section overheads begin: RS or MS.
Defects related to conditions affecting a whole VC and its pointer begin: AU or TU. AU is used for VC-4s.

TU is used for TU-3s, TU-2s and TU-12s. Defect types beginning TU are not distinguishable.

When distinguishing LP and LPOM remember that LPs will be present when traffic is terminated and

LPOMs when traffic is un-terminated.

A defect type (e.g. LP-EXC) has two parts:


Part 1 is a "function point
Part 2 is an "alarm category".
Example: LP-EXC. This defect is detected at the LP function point - the "low order path termination"

function point. The category of the defect is "EXC" - EXCessive bit errors.

Excessive bit errors in a VC-3 will give an LP-EXC defect, as will excessive bit errors in a

VC-12. The two defects share their type but they have distinct instances. When the corresponding alarm is
reported to the user the type and instance will be reported.

12

www.mapyourtech.com

Defect Correlation
If a defect is subject to correlation
it will NOT be raised if another alarm is present.
Aim of defect correlation
The aim of correlation is to present to the operator only the alarm closest to the

source cause of a set of related defects. This reduces the amount of fault
analysis required of the operator and the traffic on communication channels.
Example:
If EXC is present it will hide the presentation of TIM, PLM, UNEQ etc.
More specifically EXC will mask TIM, PLM and UNEQ alarms.

HP-EXC

A masks B
HP-TIM
13

HP-PLM

www.mapyourtech.com

HP-UNEQ

Plug In Unit Defect Correlation

Plug In Unit [PIU] related defects


For a given instance of PIU in a slot
All defects present within that PIU will be masked

A
Card
Fail

Card
Fault

Wrong
Card

Unexpected
Card

= A masks B

14

Alarm raised on the card/slot


instance

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH Traffic Defect Correlation

A
PPI
LOS

PPI UNEXP
SGNL

= A masks B

PPI DEG

PPI EXC
PPI AIS
PPI LOF
PPI LOM

15

www.mapyourtech.com

INT LP IP
BUFFER

INT HP IP
BUFFER

SDH traffic DEFECT correlation


RS LOS

RS UNEXPECTED
SIGNAL

ES CMI

= A masks B
B

RS LOF

A
QECC COMMS
FAIL

RS TIM
MS AIS

MS RDI

= A masks B,
dependent on AIS
consequent action
configuration of A
B

MS RDI

MS EXC

MS DEG

AU LOP

AU AIS

16

HPOM
EXC

www.mapyourtech.com
HPOM

HPOM

HPOM

HP EXC

INT HP OP
BUFF

HP DEG

HP
LOM

PPI LOF

HP TIM

HP PLM

HP
UNEQ

HP RDI

HP REI

TU LOP

TU AIS
A
INT TU LOP

= "A masks B if
B's TU type is
TU-12"

INT TU AIS

LPOM EXC

LPOM TIM

LPOM
PLM

LPOM
UNEQ

LP EXC

INT LP OP
BUFFER

17

LP
DEG

www.mapyourtech.com

LP TIM

LP
PLM

LP
UNEQ

LP RDI

LP REI

What is a path?
A path is an end to end circuit
The ends of a LO path are where traffic is brought into SDH or removed from SDH
Paths carry VCs
LO VCs are
generated where traffic is brought into SDH
and terminated where it is removed

HO VCs are
Generated / terminated where traffic is brought into SDH or when LO VCs are brought

into / removed from a HO VC

Low Order Path

High Order Path

Multiplexer
Regenerator
18

www.mapyourtech.com

Carrying a 2 Meg circuit in a STM frame

2M example where
High order paths are
encased in STM frames when they pass between nodes
Low order paths are
threaded through high order paths

19

www.mapyourtech.com

RS
MS
HO path
LO path
2M PDH

2M trib
STM-1 tributary with a
LO connection
Multiplexor

Regenerator

SONET Layers
Path
Terminating
Equipment
(PTE)
DS1
DS3

Section
Terminating
Equipment
(STE)

Line
Terminating
Equipment
(LTE)

Path
Terminating
Equipment
(PTE)

VT Path

VT Path

STS Path

STS Path

Line

Line

Line

DS3

STS Path
Line

Section

Section

Section

Section

Section

Photonic

Photonic

Photonic

Photonic

Photonic

Section

Section
Line

VT Path
www.mapyourtech.com

Section

Section

Line

Line
STS Path

STS Path

20

Path
Terminating
Equipment
(PTE)

DS1

SDH Section Hierarchy

There are four sections Regenerator Section (RS), Multiplex Section (MS), Higher
Order Path Section (HP), and Lower Order Path Section (LP)

RS is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which RSOH part of SDH frame
is NOT opened

MS is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which MSOH part of SDH frame
is NOT opened

HP is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which higher order VC part of
SDH frame is NOT opened (it may be opened only for interpreting HOPOH)

LP is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which lower order VC part of
SDH frame is NOT opened (it may be opened only for interpreting LOPOH)

21

www.mapyourtech.com

Downlink signal flow & High order part


High order part
SDH
Interface cross-connect
unit
PDH interface

Downlink
signal flow

22

www.mapyourtech.com

SDH
Interface

Uplink signal flow & Low order part

SDH
Interface cross-connect
unit
PDH interface
Uplink signal
flow

23

www.mapyourtech.com

Low order part

SDH
Interface

Two Common Alarms


AIS (Alarm Indication
Signal)
Inserts the all 1s signal into the Low level circuits, Indicating that the signal is
unavailable. Common AIS alarms include MS_AIS, AU_AIS, TU_AIS and E1_AIS.

RDI (Remote Defect Indication)


Indicates the alarm transferred back to the home station from
the opposite station after the opposite station has detected
alarms of LOS (loss of signal), AIS and TIM (trace identifier
mismatch). Common RDI alarms include MS_RDI, HP_RDI and
LP_RDI.

24

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
SDH Interface to Cross-connect Unit
Uplink signal
Flow
A
STM-N

B
SPI
SPI

C
RST
RST

D
MST
MST

E
MSP
MSP

F
MSA
MSA

Downlink signal
Flow

25

www.mapyourtech.com

G
HPT
HPT

Cross-connect
Unit

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
Diagram of Alarm Generation
Frame synchronizer& RS MS overhead processor
overhead processor

(RST)

STMN
Optic
al
Signal

LOS

A1,A2
B1

(MST)

LOF

AIS

K2

B1
Err

B2
M1
K2

MS_AIS
B2
Err
MS_REI
MS_RDI

Downlink signal flow


Signal transfer point (Insert
down all "1"s signal)

26

www.mapyourtech.com

Pointer processor& HP
overhead processor

(MSA, HPT)

AIS

H1,H2
H1,H2

AU_AIS
AU_LOP
HP_TIM

J1
HP_UNE
C2
Q
HP_SLM
C2
HP_LOM
H4
B3
B3
Err
HP_REI
G1
HP_RDI
G1

Alarm report or return


Alarm termination point
(Report to SCC unit)

X
C
S

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
Downlink Signal Flow
Frame synchronizer and RS overhead processor
Optical receiving
Optical/electrical conversion (O/E)
O/E module checks Optical signal (If no light in the input signal, optical

power excessively low or high or the code type mismatch, R_LOS alarm
will be reported)
A1, A2 and J0 bytes detecting
Search the framing bytes (R_OOF, R_LOF)
Extract the line synchronous timing source
J0 byte (J0_MM)
Scramble
B1 byte detecting
BIP-8 computing to check bit error (B1_SD, B1_EXC, SES, RSUAT)
Process F1, D1 - D3 and E1 bytes

27

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
Downlink Signal Flow
MS overhead processor
K1 and K2 bytes detecting

SF and SD detection
Process D4D12, S1 and E2 bytes
MSP protection function
MS_AIS, MS_RDI

B2 byte detecting

28

BIP-8 computing to check bit error (B2_SD and B2_OVER)


M1 bytes (MS_REI)

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
Downlink Signal Flow
Pointer processor and HP overhead
processor

H1 and H2 bytes detecting

Frequency and phase alignment


Locate each VC-4 and send it to High order path overhead processor
Generate AU_AIS, AU_LOP

J1, C2, B3 and G1 bytes detecting

29

J1 Bytes (HP_TIM)
C2 Bytes (HP_UNEQ, HP_SLM)
B3 bit error detecting (B3_SD, B3_OVER, SES, HVCUAT)
H4 Bytes (For VC12 signal, HP_LOM)
G1 Bytes (HP_RDI, HP_REI)
F3, K3, N1 Bytes (Reserved)

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
Uplink Signal Flow
Pointer processor and HP overhead processor
Generates N High order path overhead bytes

J1, C2, B3, G1, F2, F3 and N1 Bytes

Return alarm to the remote end

AU-4 pointers generating

30

HP_RDI (G1)
HP_REI (G1)
Pointer processor generates N AU-4 pointers

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
Uplink Signal Flow
MS overhead processor

Set multiplex section overhead (MSOH) Bytes

31

K1, K2, D4-D12, S1, M1, E2 and B2 Bytes

Return alarm to the remote end

MS_RDI (K2)

MS_REI (M1)

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of High Order


Part
Uplink Signal Flow
Frame synchronizer and RS overhead processor

Set regenerator section overhead (RSOH) Bytes

32

A1, A2, J0, E1, F1, D1-D3 and B1 Bytes


Frame synchronizer and scrambler scrambles STM-N electrical signals
E/O

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of Low Order


Part
PDH Interface to Cross-connect Unit
Uplink signal
Flow
G
Cross-connect
Unit

H
HPA
HPA

I
LPT
LPT

J
LPA
LPA

Downlink signal
Flow

33

www.mapyourtech.com

K
PPI
PPI

PDH Interface

Alarms & Performance of Low Order


Part
Diagram of Alarm Generation
High Order Path
Adaptation& Low Order Path
Termination
(HPA, LPT)
X
C
S

Low Order Path


Adaptation

PDH Physical Interface

(LPA)

(PPI)
E1_AISAll 1

V5
V5

T_ALOS

LP_SLM
LP_UNE
Q
LP_TIM

E1
Interfac
e

LP_TFIF
O

J2
V1,V2 TU_LOP
V1,V2 TU_AIS
H4
X
C
S

V5

HP_LO
M
LP_RDI
All 1

E1_AIS
V5

E1
Interfac
e

BIP 2
LP_RE
I

LP_RFIFO
Downlink signal flow
Signal transfer point (Insert
down all "1"s signal)

34

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm report or return


Alarm termination point
(Report to SCC unit)

Alarms & Performance of Low Order


Part
Downlink Signal Flow
High Order Path Adaptation& Low Order Path Termination
V1, V2 and V3 bytes detecting

Demap the VC-4 into VC-12s


Pointers of all VC-12s are decoded
TU_AIS, TU_LOP

V5 Bytes detecting

LP_RDI( b8), LP_UNEQ, LP_SLM( b5-b7), LP_REI( b3)


BIP-2 computing to check bit error( b1-b2)

H4 Bytes detecting

HP_LOM

J2 Bytes detecting

35

LP_TIM

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of Low Order


Part
Downlink Signal Flow
Low Order Path Adaptation& PDH Physical
Interface
Low Order Path Adaptation

Recover data stream and the related clock reference signals


Detect LP_RFIFO alarm

PDH Physical Interface

36

Forming a 2048 kbit/s signal

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of Low Order


Part
Uplink Signal Flow
Low Order Path Adaptation& PDH Physical
Interface
Low Order Path Adaptation

Data adaptation
Detect LP_TFIFO alarm

PDH Physical Interface

37

Clock extraction and dada regeneration


Detect and terminate the T_ALOS alarm
Detect E1_AIS alarm

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarms & Performance of Low Order


Part
Uplink Signal Flow
High Order Path Adaptation& Low Order Path
Low Order Path Termination

High Order Path Adaptation

38

Insert POH in the C-12 (C-12 to VC-12)


V5 byte (Insert "signal label" in the b5-b7, calculate BIP-2, set the
result to the b1 and b2)
Adapt VC-12 into TU-12
Map TU-12 into High order VC-4

www.mapyourtech.com

Suppression Correlation between SDH Alarms


Suppression

R_LOS

Relationship
A1, A2

R_LOF

Bytes
RSOH,
MSOH
(Except
A1,A2)
B3_EXEC

R_OOF

J0_MM

AU_AIS

HP_TIM

B3_SD

39

MS_AIS

B A suppress B

www.mapyourtech.com

B1_EXEC

AU_LOP

HP_SLM

B1_SD

HP_LOM

MS_RDI

B2_EXEC

B2_SD

HP_RDI

HP_UNEQ

TU_AIS

TU_LOP

BIP_EXEC

LP_UNEQ

LP_TIM

LP_SLM

BIP_SD

LP_RDI

More on Alarms

40

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm Understanding Rules


Rule 1

Alarms reported are alarms received


FC 1

Alarm
reported

ex. a

ADM 1
FC 1

ADM 2
Alarm
reported

ex. b

Rule 2

ADM 1

Alarms are reported on SDH Objects

41

www.mapyourtech.com

ADM 2

Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)


Rule 3

3a. No Object => No Alarms reported


ex.

NO
TU12
(1-11)

ADM 1

FC on TU12 (1-11)
NO Alarm reported
for FC on TU12 (11-1)

Note:
ADM 2

3b. Object Mismatch => No Alarms reported


ex.

TU11
(1-11)

ADM 1
42

www.mapyourtech.com

See slide 9

FC on TU12 (1-11)
NO Alarm reported
for FC on TU12 (11-1)

These two
examples
are not
possible
for AU
object
WHY?

ADM 2

Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)


Rule 4

4a. No PT XC => No Alarms pass-through


NO VC4

ex.
a

PT (1)
FC on AU4 (1)

ADM 1

NO Alarm passthrough

ADM 3
Alarm reported
for FC on AU4 (1)

NO
VC12

ex.
b
ADM 1
43

ADM 2

NO Alarm passthrough

www.mapyourtech.com

PT (1-11)

FC on TU12 (1-11)

ADM 2

ADM 3
NO Alarm reported
for FC on TU12 (11-1)

Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)

4b. Bigger PT XC => No Alarms reported & Alarm pass-through


STM-1

VC4

ex.
a
ADM 1

Alarm passthrough for

ADM 2

links
FC on TU12 (1-11)

ADM 3

NO Alarm reported
for FC on TU12 (1-11)

FC on TU12 (11-1)

4c. Smaller PT XC => No Alarms reported (always ??) &


Alarm pass-through but on smaller object

(1-1-1)

ADM 1

Alarm passthrough for

FC on TU12 (1What www.mapyourtech.com


if Same size PT
1-1)
XC ?

44

STM-1

VC12

ex.
b

links

FC on TU3 (1)

ADM 2

ADM 3
NO Alarm
reported
for FC on TU3
(1)

Guide Lines

Alarms reported are alarms received


Object---- No Object
---- Object Mismatch
Privilege of the NE
Upstream / Downstream

45

www.mapyourtech.com

RS Alarms
RS alarms are those, which can be reported even by a pure Regenerator
(who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) only RSOH)
LOS (Loss of Signal)
based on whole RSOH
LOF (Loss of Frame)
based on A1, A2 bytes
TIM (Trace Identifier Mismatch)
based on J0 byte

RSOH
bytes

A1 A2 J0
B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3

SF (Signal Fail)
based on B1 byte
SD (Signal Degrade)
based on B1 byte
46

www.mapyourtech.com

Note: The order in which the alarms are


written is important,
as we will see later while discussing
Alarm masking

Description of Alarms
LOS
Received power is less than Laser receiver sensitivity (All bits interpreted as 0)
Tx off /
misconnectivity

ex.

LOF

Fiber Cut

Rx off /
misconnectivity

Tx

LO
S
Rx

Rx

Tx
Received power is less than
Laser receiver sensitivity
ADM 1
ADM 2
(Low power transmitted, Span is
longer than specified, Fiber gets
deformed etc. etc.)
LOS clears when 2 consecutive framing patterns are received & no new LOS
condition is detected

Anything other than F6 28 (Hex) in any (?) of the A1 A2 bytes (within a STM frame)
-- for consecutive 5 frames (625 s) OOF (Out of Frame) clearing 2 frames
-- for consecutive 24 frames (3 ms) LOF clearing 24 frames

47

Note: Prolonged LOS => LOF, but not always LOF


=> LOS

www.mapyourtech.com

(this fact will be used as one of the Alarm

Description of Alarms (contd.)


TIM (J0)
Received J0 trace (1/16 byte(s)) != Expected J0 trace (1/16 byte(s))

P
1
Tx trace = A
to B

A
SF (B1/B2/B3/V5)

Exp trace = C
to B
Rx trace = A
to B

P
2

Exp trace = A
to B
Rx trace = C
to B

Tx trace = C
to B

3
4
5
Equivalent BER exceeds alarm generation threshold ( 1 in 10 / 1 in 10 / 1 in 10 )
SD (B1/B2/B3/V5)

Equivalent BER exceeds alarm generation threshold ( 1 in 10 to 1 in 10 )


Note: For both SF & SD, alarm clearing threshold is 1 decade
lower than generation threshold, e.g., Gen. Thr. is 1 in 1000 or
www.mapyourtech.com
48
higher => Clg. Thr. is 1 in 10000 or lower

MS Alarms
MS alarms are those, which can be reported by a Add-Drop Multiplexer, irrespective of
cross-connect configuration
(who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU pointers plus
opening HOPOH(s) / TU Pointers / LOPOH(s) depending upon cross-connect configuration)
AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)
reported based on K2 byte -- bits 6,7,8
SF (Signal Fail)
based on B2 bytes
SD (Signal Degrade)
based on B2 bytes
RDI (Remote Defect Indication)
based on K2 byte -- bits 6,7,8

MSOH
bytes

B2 K1 K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1 M1 E2

Note 1: The order in which the alarms are written is important, we will see later while
discussing Alarm masking
Note 2: MS-AIS is also called Line-AIS or AIS on STM port
www.mapyourtech.com
49
MS-RDI is also called Line-RDI or RDI on STM port

Description of Alarms (contd.)


Example of generation of
AIS, RDI
Any traffic affecting LP
RS Alarm
HP
Alarm or
or TUMS-AIS
AU-AIS
AIS
(Rx)(Rx)
(Rx)

MS-RDI
HP-RDI
LP-RDI
Example of reception of TU-AIS,
LP-RDI
Any traffic affecting RS/HP/LP
Alarm
VC1
2

E
1

ADM 1

50

LP-RDI
(Rx)
www.mapyourtech.com

VC1
2
ADM 2

TU-AIS
MS-AIS
AU-AIS
(Gen)

ADM

TU-AIS (Rx)

VC1
2
ADM 3

E
1

HP / LP Alarms
HP / LP alarms are those, which can be reported by a Add-Drop Multiplexer, having
HO / HO & LO object (LO object => LO cross-connect)
(who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU Pointers plus at
least interpreting HOPOH(s) / opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU
Pointers, HOPOH(s), TU Pointers plus at least interpreting LOPOH(s)
depending upon cross-connect configuration)

H1, H2, H3 AU
Pointer bytes

HP-AIS reported based on H1, H2 bytes

Note 1: Same as
before

HP-UNEQ (unequipped) based on C2 byte

HP-LOP (Loss of Pointer) based on H1, H2 bytes

HP-TIM based on J1 byte


Note 2: HP-Alarm is
also
called AUAlarm
or Alarm on
AU
51
also

HP-SF based on B3 byte


HP-SD based on B3 byte
HP-RDI based on G1 byte -- bit 5

www.mapyourtech.com
LP-Alarm is

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

H
O
P
O
H
b
y
t
e
s

HP / LP Alarms (contd.)
Note 1: Same as before

LP-AIS reported based on V1, V2 bytes

Note 2: Whole of this slide


assumes

LP-LOP based on V1, V2 bytes

TU2/TU12/TU11 for LP.

LOM (Loss of Multiframe) based on H4 byte bits 7,8

If there
is TU3 with AU4
mapping, then

HP-PLM / SLM (Payload / Signal Label Mismatch)


based on C2 byte
LP5,6,7
but
LP-UNEQ based on V5 also
byte it
is
bits
Pointers & POH

LOPOH
bytes

V1, V2, V3 TU
Pointer bytes

52

www.mapyourtech.com

V5
J2
N2
K4

bytes will be like HO


LP-TIM based on J2 byte

LP-SF based on V5 byte bits 1,2


LP-SD based on V5 byte bits 1,2
LP-RDI based on V5 byte -- bit 8
LP-PLM / SLM based on V5 byte bits 5,6,7

SONET/SDN Terminology Translation


SDH
VC-11 (virtual container)
VC-12
VC-2
VC-3
VC-4

VT-1.5 SPE
VT-2 SPE
VT-6 SPE
STS-1 SPE
STS-3c SPE

TU-11 (tributary unit)


TU-12
TU-2
TU-3

VT-1.5 (Virtual Tributary size 1.5)


VT-2
VT-6
no SONET equivalent (like a 50 Mbit/s VT)

TUG-2 (TU group)


TUG-3

VT Group
No SONET equivalent

AU-3 = VC-3 + Ptr


AU-4 = VC-4 + Ptr

STS-1 SPE + STS-1 Pointer


STS-3c SPE + STS-3c Pointer

AUG = 1 x AU-4,
or 3 x AU-3s

logical entity (not defined)

STM-1 = AUG + SOH


STM-N = N AUGs + SOH
Regenerator Section
Multiplex Section

53

www.mapyourtech.com

SONET

STS-3
STS-3N
Section Layer
Line Layer
14

Alarm Propagation Examples

For every example,


Assumption(s) is/are stated
Root Cause(s) is/are stated
Diagrammatic representation is made (OFCs are
shown in cyan)
Alarm(s) generated / condition(s) generated for
reporting alarms is/are
shown in black
Alarm(s) existing at a port is/are shown in red
Alarm(s) masked at a port is/are
covered with
Alarm(s) reported at secondary supprressed alarm page
is/are shown
54

in pink, italicised
Note(s), whenever required is/are mentioned in green
www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 1
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports
XConnect on both ports
AU4 Signal Label
Unequipped
HPRDI

Root Cause: NO

HP- UNEQ
HPRDI

HP- UNEQ

HPRDI

B
HPRDI
AU4 Signal Label
Unequipped

Note: 1) if AU-3 mapping, then what happens?


2) In newer version of Tejas software, UNEQ is not reported
for this root cause
55

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 2
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports,
XConnect HP-SLM
on the port
of B action is
default
report SLM, no
downstream AIS

Root Cause: NO

Signal Label TUGHP- structure


RDI
LP-RDI

E1

VC1
2
A

HPRDI
HPSLM

HP- UNEQ
TULOP

AU4 Signal Label


Unequipped
Invalid
TU Pointer
value

Note: LP-RDI is not reported on B (See Rule 3a)


56

www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 3
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports of A & C
Root Cause: Fiber cut in the link from A to B
MS-AIS
AIS
LOS

AU-AIS
TU-AIS

VC-12

VC-12
E1

MS-RDI

E1

HP-RDI
LP-RDI

B
(Reg.
)

C
MS-RDI
HP-RDI
LP-RDI

Note: The Reg. can not generate any RDI


57

Actually at C, AU-AIS & TU-AIS conditions are


www.mapyourtech.com
also
received

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 4
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
the link from A to B
ADM B VC-12 PT

Root Cause: Fiber cut in

MS-AIS
LOS
VC-12
E1

TU AIS
VC-12
LP RDI

MS-RDI

HP-RDI
LP
RDI

VC-12

www.mapyourtech.com

B
MS-RDI
HP-RDI

Note: Only TU-AIS is reported on Node C (See


Rule 4c)
LP-RDI on B is SSA
58

E1

LP RDI

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 5
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
the link from A to B
ADM B VC-4 PT

Root Cause: Fiber cut in

MS-AIS
AU AIS
LOS
VC-12
E1

TU AIS
VC-4

VC-12

MS-RDI

E1

HP-RDI
LP
RDI

B
MS-RDI
HP-RDI

Note: Only AU-AIS is reported on Node C (See


Rule 4c)
LP-RDI on B is not reported
www.mapyourtech.com
59
(See Rule
3b)

LP RDI

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 6
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
on B, C & D for (1-1-2)

Root cause: NO XConnect

E1 (1)

E1
(1)
VC-12 (1-1-1)
LP RDI
(1-1-2)

E1
(2)

VC-12 (1-12)
TU-LOP
(1-1-2)

Invalid TU
Pointers (1-1-2)

Note: Why E1(1) is shown?


60

LP-RDI is not reported on B (See Rule 3a)


www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 7
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
on C & D for (1-1-2)

Root cause: NO XConnect

E1 (1)

E1
(1)
VC-12 (1-1-1)
LP RDI
(1-1-2)

LP RDI
(1-1-2)
LP-RDI
(1-1-2)

E1
(2)

VC-12 (1-12)
TU-AIS
(1A
1-2)

VC-12 (1-12)
TU-LOP
(1-1-2)

TU AIS (1-1-2)

C
Invalid TU
Pointers (1-1-2)

Note: LP-RDI at node B is secondary suppressed


61

TU-AIS at node A is reported as terminating alarm


www.mapyourtech.com

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 8
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
on C for (1-1-2)

Root cause: NO XConnect

E1 (1)

E1
(1)
VC-12 (1-1-1)
LP RDI
(1-1-2)

LP RDI
(1-1-2)
LP-RDI
(1-1-2)

E1
(2)

VC-12 (1-12)
TU-AIS
(1A
1-2)

VC-12 (1-12)
TU-LOP
(1-1-2)

TU AIS (1-1-2)

Invalid TU
Pointers (1-12)
TU-LOP
(1-1-2)
VC12(11-2)

C
Invalid TU
Pointers (1-1-2)

Note: K-L-M value need not remain same throughout a


particular LP, alarms will
62

www.mapyourtech.com

be reported accordingly on different objects

D
LP RDI (1-1-2)

E1
(2)

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 9
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports,
XConnect on C for (1-1-1)

Root cause: NO

VC4 PT at node B,
For each port, HP-SLM default action is
ignore SLM
LP-RDI

(1-1-1)

VC-12(1-1-1)

E1 (1)

VC-4

VC-12(1-1-2)

VC-12(11-2)

TU-LOP

E1 (2)

(1-1-1)

C
Invalid TU
Pointers

Note: LP-RDI from A is not reported on B (See Rule 3b).


(1-1-1)
63

Why assumption on SLM?


www.mapyourtech.com

E1(2
)

Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 10 (with SNCP)
Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
in the link from A to B

Root cause: Fiber-cut

MS-AIS

W A-B-C, P A-D-C
TU AIS

LOS
E1

VC-12

VC-12
MS-RDI

LP
RDI

HP-RDI
LP RDI MS-RDI

HP-RDI

Note: SNCP is always


VC-12

uni-directional
& for
64

www.mapyourtech.com

Tejas, it is 1+1

VC-12

LP RDI

E1

Alarms: Animated Description

65

www.mapyourtech.com

SDH Alarms and Consequent Actions


SPI
LOS
RST
LOF

RS-TIM

RS-BIP
MSA

MST
MSAIS

MSEXC

HPOM /
HPT
HPHP-EXC
TIM
LPOM /
LPT
LPLP-EXC
TIM

66

MSDEG

HPDEG

LP-DEG

MS-RDI

HP-RDI

LP-RDI

www.mapyourtech.com

MS-REI

HP-REI

LP-REI

MS-BIP

AUAIS

HP-BIP

HPO
M
HPUNEQ

LP-BIP

LPO
M
LPUNEQ

AU-LOP

HPA
HPPLM
LPA
LPPLM

HPLOM

TU-AIS

TU-LOP

LOS

INTERRUPTION,
HW TROUBLE,
ATTENUATION

LOS

NE

AU/TUAIS

LINE

LINE

MS-RDI

TRIB

K2=XXXXX110

PDH-AIS

PDH

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

67

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

NE

LOF
A1,A2

PROBLEM ON FRAME
ALIGNMENT WORD

AU/TUAIS

LOF

NE

LINE

LINE

MS-RDI

TRIB

K2=XXXXX110
PDH-AIS

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

68

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

RS-TIM
RECEIVED REGENERATOR
SECTION TRACE
IDENTIFIER MISMATCH

JO

RSTIM

NE

AU/TUAIS

LINE

LINE

MS-RDI

TRIB

K2=XXXXX110
PDH-AIS

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

69

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

RS-BIP
NEAR END

B1

ERRORED SIGNAL

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

RSBIP

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

70

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

MS-AIS
TROUBLE ON THE
RECEIVED SIGNAL
(LOS, LOF, RS-TIM)

K2=XXXXX111

MS-AIS

MSAIS

AU/TUAIS

LINE

LINE

MS-RDI

TRIB

K2=XXXXX110

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

71

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH-AIS

PDH

NE

MS-EXC
NEAR END
PERFORMANCE

B2

EXCESSIVE BIT
ERROR RATE

COLLECTION

( 1X10 E -3)

MSEXC

NE

AU/TUAIS

LINE

LINE

MS-RDI

TRIB

K2=XXXXX110
PDH-AIS

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

72

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

MS-BIP
NEAR END

B2

ERRORED SIGNAL

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

MSBIP

NE

LINE

LINE

MS-REI

TRIB

M1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

73

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

MS-RDI
TROUBLE ON THE
RX SIDE
(LOS, LOF. RS-TIM,
MS-AIS, MS-EXC,

K2=XXXXX110

MS-RDI

MSRDI

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

74

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

MS-REI
FAR END

M1

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

MS-REI

MSREI

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

ERRORED SIGNAL

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

75

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

MS-DEG
NEAR END
PERFORMANCE

B2

DEGRADATION

(1X10 E -5 1X10 E -9)

COLLECTION

MSDEG

NE

LINE

LINE

MS-REI

TRIB

M1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

76

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

AU-AIS
TROUBLE ON THE
RX SIDE
(LOS, LOF, RS-TIM,
MS-AIS, MS-EXC,

AU-4 XC
AU-AIS

AU/TUAIS

AUAIS

NE

AI
S

LINE

LINE

HP-RDI

TRIB

G1 =XXXX100X

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

77

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH-AIS

PDH

NE

AU-LOP
TROUBLE ON THE
AU POINTER VALUE
(WRONG SETTING
SDH/SONET, DEG,
HW FAILURE)

H1,H2

AU/TUAIS

AULOP

NE

LINE

LINE

HP-RDI

TRIB

G1 =XXXX100X

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

78

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH-AIS

PDH

NE

HP-UNEQ
AU-4 CHANNEL
NOT CONNETTED

C2 = 00000000

HP-UNEQ

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

79

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

HP-TIM
RECEIVED HIGHER PATH TRACE
IDENTIFIER MISMATCH

J1

HP-TIM

NE

LINE

LINE

HP-RDI

TRIB

G1 =XXXX100X

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

80

XXX

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH-AIS

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

HPTIM

PDH
140
M

NE

HP-BIP
ERRORED SIGNAL

NEAR END

B3

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

HP-BIP

NE

LINE

LINE

HP-REI
TRIB

G1 (1,2,3,4)

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

81

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
140
M

HPBIP

NE

HP-RDI
TROUBLE ON THE
RECEIVED HP
(AU-AIS, AU-LOP, HP-TIM,
HP-PLM, HP-EXC)

G1 =XXXX100X

HP-RDI

HP-RDI

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

82

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
140
M

HPRDI

NE

HP-REI
FAR END
G1 (1, 2, 3, 4)

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

HP-REI

HP-REI

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

ERRORED SIGNAL

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

83

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
140
M

HPREI

NE

HP-DEG
DEGRADATION

(1X10 E -5 1X10 E -9)

NEAR END

B3

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

HP-DEG

NE

LINE

LINE

HP-REI
TRIB

G1 (1,2,3,4)

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

84

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
140
M

HPDEG

NE

HP-EXC
EXCESSIVE BIT
ERROR RATE

NEAR END

B3

( 1X10 E -3)

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

HP-EXC

NE

LINE

LINE

HP-RDI
TRIB

G1 =XXXX100X

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

85

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
140
M

HPEXC

NE

HP-PLM
UNEXPECTED HIGHER
PATH PAYLOD LABEL

C2

HPPLM

NE

TU-AIS

LINE

LINE

HP-RDI

TRIB

G1 =XXXX100X

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

86

XXX

PDH-AIS

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

TU-AIS
TROUBLE ON THE
RX SIDE
(AU-AIS, AU-LOP,
HP-TIM, HP-PLM)

TU XC
TU-AIS

TUAIS

NE

AI
S

LINE

LINE

LP-RDI

TRIB

V5 = XXXXXXX1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

87

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

AI
S

PDH-AIS

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

NE

TU-LOP
TROUBLE ON THE
TU POINTER VALUE
(DEGRADATION,
HW FAILURE)

V1, V2

TULOP

NE

TU-AIS

LINE

LINE

LP-RDI

TRIB

V5 = XXXXXXX1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

88

XXX

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH-AIS

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

AI
S

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

NE

LP-TIM
RECEIVED LOWER PATH TRACE
IDENTIFIER MISMATCH

J2

LP-TIM

NE

LINE

LINE

LP-RDI

TRIB

V5 = XXXXXXX1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

89

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

LP-TIM

PDH-AIS

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

NE

LP-BIP
ERRORED SIGNAL

NEAR END

V5 (1, 2)

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

LP-BIP

NE

LINE

LINE

LP-REI
TRIB

V5 (3)

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

90

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

LP-BIP

NE

LP-RDI
TROUBLE ON THE
RECEIVED LP
(TU-AIS, TU-LOP, LP-TIM,
LP-PLM, LP-EXC)

V5 = XXXXXXX1

LP-RDI

LP-RDI

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

PDH
XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

91

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

1.5-2-3445M

LPRDI

NE

LP-REI
FAR END

V5 (3)

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

LP-REI

LP-REI

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

ERRORED SIGNAL

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

92

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

LP-REI

NE

LP-DEG
DEGRADATION

(1X10 E -5 1X10 E -9)

NEAR END

V5 (1, 2)

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

LP-DEG

NE

LINE

LINE

LP-REI
TRIB

V5 (3)

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

93

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

LPDEG

NE

LP-EXC
EXCESSIVE BIT
ERROR RATE

NEAR END

V5 (1, 2)

( 1X10 E -3)

PERFORMANCE
COLLECTION

LP-EXC

NE

LINE

LINE

LP-RDI

TRIB

V5 = XXXXXXX1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

94

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

LPEXC

NE

LP-PLM
UNEXPECTED LOWER
PATH PAYLOD LABEL

NE

LINE

LINE

LP-RDI

TRIB

V5 = XXXXXXX1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

95

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

LPPLM

PDH-AIS

PDH
1.5-2-3445M

NE

LP-UNEQ
TU CHANNEL
NOT CONNETTED

V5 (5, 6, 7) = 000

LP-UNEQ

NE

LINE

LINE

TRIB

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

96

XXX

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH

NE

HP-LOM
TROUBLE ON THE
MULTIFRAME ALIGNMENT
WORD

H4

HPLOM

NE

TU-AIS

LINE

LINE

LP-RDI

TRIB

V5 = XXXXXXX1

XXX

= DETECTED

XXX

= GENERATED
AI=
S

97

XXX

SIGNAL PASSED THROUGH

www.mapyourtech.com

PDH-AIS

= SENT BACK

XXX = MONITORED

AI
S

PDH
1.5-2M

NE

Regenerator Section

Multiplex Section

AIS
LOF

Error indicator alarm sent


upstream

B1
K2

RS-TIM

Alarm indicator sent upstream

B2
M1

Lower Order Path

LOS

A1/A2
J0

Higher Order Path

Error/alarm detection

AIS

RS-BIP

K2
AIS

MS-AIS
MS-BIP
MS-REI
MS-RDI

AIS

C2
J1
B3

AIS

G1
G1

AU-AIS

AU-LOP

AIS
HP-UNEQ

H4

HP-TIM

C2

HP-BIP

V5

HP-REI

J2

HP-RDI

V5

98
V5
V5

www.mapyourtech.com

AIS

Performance Monitoring

99

www.mapyourtech.com

Overhead Termination

STM-n Unit or
2M, 34M Unit 140M Unit

LPT

HPT

STM-n Unit

MST

STM-n Unit

RST

RST

MST

STM-n Unit or
140M Unit 2M, 34M Unit

HPT

LPT

RSOH
MSOH
VC-4 POH
VC-12, VC-3 POH

LPT: Lower-order Path termination


HPT: High-order Path termination
www.mapyourtech.com

MST: Multiplex Section Termination


RST: Regenerator Section Termination

100

Overhead Termination
STM-N unit
STM-N

RST

MST

TSI unit
HPT

STM-N unit
STM-N

RST

RST

Crossconnect
Level

MST

MST

VC-4

RST

LPT

HPT

MST

www.mapyourtech.com

Crossconnect
Level
VC-12 or VC-3

TSI unit
Crossconnect
Level
VC-4

2M or 34M

140M unit
HPT

TSI unit

STM-N unit
STM-N

VC-12 or VC-3

TSI unit

STM-N unit
STM-N

Crossconnect
Level

2M or 34M unit

140M

STM-N unit
HPT

MST

RST

STM-N

RST

STM-N

STM-N unit
MST

101

Performance Monitoring Point

Physical Layer
Section Layer
Adaptation
High/Low-order Path Termination

102

www.mapyourtech.com

Performance Monitoring
-Physical Layer-

Optical Interface
LDBC : Laser Diode Bias Current
PDH Interface
CV-L : Code Rule Violation
ES-L : Errored Second
SES-L : Severely Errored Second
External Clock Interface
CV- : Code Rule Violation
ES- : Errored Second)
SES- : Severely Errored Second

www.mapyourtech.com

: L or P
103

Performance Monitoring
-Section Layer-

Regenerator (RS) and Multiplex (MS) Section


ES-
: Errored Second
SES-
: Severely Errored Seconds
BBE-
: Background Block Error
UAS-
: Unavailable Seconds
OFS-
: Out of Frame Seconds (OOF)
Multiplex Section Far-end
ES-MSFE
: Errored Second
SES-MSFE : Severely Errored Seconds
BBE-MSFE : Background Block Error
UAS-MSFE : Unavailable Seconds
Multiplex Section
PSC
: Protection Switching Count
PSD
: Protection Switching Duration

www.mapyourtech.com

: RS or MS
104

Performance Monitoring
-Adaptation-

AU-4 Pointer
PJE (positive) : Pointer Justification Event (positive)
PJE (negative) : Pointer Justification Event (negative)

www.mapyourtech.com

105

Performance Monitoring
-Path Termination-

High/Low-order Path (receiving direction)


ES-
: Errored Second
SES-
: Severely Errored Seconds
BBE- : Background Block Error
UAS- : Unavailable Seconds
High/Low-order Path (transmitting direction)
ES- FE : Errored Second
SES- FE : Severely Errored Seconds
BBE- FE : Background Block Error
UAS- FE : Unavailable Seconds
:

HO or

LO
www.mapyourtech.com

106

Terms and Definitions


(used by error performance)

EDC

Error Detection Code

Block

block

EB

Errored Block

Defect :

defect

ES

Errored Second

SES

Severely Errored Second

BBE

Background Block Error

CV

Code Violation

UAS

Unavailable Second

www.mapyourtech.com

107

BIP-8 of VC-4

1
26 2

2
26 3

26 1

1
2

1
1

2
2

Gro up o f 8 b its

3
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

7
7

8
8

7
7

8
8

BIP-8 check sequence

VC-4
234 8 234 9

B lo c k ( 1 8 7 9 2 b i t s / b l o c k )

www.mapyourtech.com

23 4 8
23 4 9

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

B3

108

Terms and Definitions


(used by error performance)

EDC

Error Detection Code

Block

block

EB

Errored Block

Defect :

defect

ES

Errored Second

SES

Severely Errored Second

BBE

Background Block Error

CV

Code Violation

UAS

Unavailable Second

www.mapyourtech.com

109

Terms and Definitions


(used by error performance)

EDC

Error Detection Code

Block

block

EB

Errored Block

Defect :

defect

ES

Errored Second

SES

Severely Errored Second

BBE

Background Block Error

CV

Code Violation

UAS

Unavailable Second

www.mapyourtech.com

110

Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Bit Error Generation Mechanism
Mechanism: Bit interleaved parity (BIP)
Transmit end: The result of BIP is placed in the relevant bytes of the
next frame
Receive end: Compare the result of BIP with the bytes of the next
frame

B1: BIP8 for the regenerator section error monitoring


function
B2: BIP24 for multiplex section error monitoring function
B3: BIP8 for monitoring the bit error performance of VC-4
V5: BIP2 for monitoring the bit error performance of VC-12

Notice: The
The Sequence
Sequence of
of descramble&
descramble& BIP
BIP
Notice:
111

www.mapyourtech.com

Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Error Detection and Report
RST MST HPT LPT

LPT HPT MST RST


B1
B2
B3
V5

Errors occurring in Low order path will not be detected in


High order path, High order bit errors will trigger Low
order errors.
112

www.mapyourtech.com

Generation and Detection of SDH


Performance
Terms
Term
BE

Errored block, in which one or more bits are in error.

BBE

Background block error, it is an errored block occurring outside of the period


of UAT and SES.

FEBBE

Far end block of background error, it is a BBE event detected at the far end.

ES

Errored second, it is a certain second with one or more errored blocks


detected.

FEES

Far end errored second, in which an ES event detected at the far end.

SES

113

Description

Severely errored second, it is a certain second which contains 30% errored


blocks or at least one serious disturbance period (SDP). Here, the SDP is a
period of at least four consecutive blocks or 1ms (taking the longer one)
where the error ratios of all the consecutive blocks are 10-2 or loss of
signal occurs.

www.mapyourtech.com

Generation and Detection of SDH


Performance
Terms
Term
FESES

Far end severely errored second, in which an SES event detected at the
remote end.

CSES

Consecutive severely errored second, in which the SES events


consecutively occur, but last less than 10 seconds.

FECSES

UAS

114

Description

Far end consecutive severely errored second, in which a CSES event


detected at the far end.
Unavailable second, it is a period of 10 consecutive seconds during which
the bit error ratio per second of the digital signal in either of the
transmission directions of a transmission system is inferior to 10-3 . These
ten seconds are considered to be part of unavailable time.

www.mapyourtech.com

Generation and Detection of SDH


Performance
Pointer Justification
Mechanism

Adjust pointers as required in practice, so as to tolerate rate


asynchronization and phase difference of payload signals.
That is, perform pointer justification on information payloads
to make the payloads synchronous with the STM-N frame

Sort

Administrative unit pointer (AU_PTR)


Tributary unit pointer (TU_PTR)
115

www.mapyourtech.com

Generation and Detection of SDH


Performance
Generation Mechanism of AU Pointer Justification
Locatio
n:

H1 Y Y H2 F F H3 H3 H3

Causation:

VC4

row
10270
Column

Network is out of synchronization

Pointer justification state:


Name

116

Byte numbering and content of the fourth row in STM-1


frame

Rate relation

10

11

12

Zero

H3

H3

H3

Info

Info

Info

Information =
container

Positive

H3

H3

H3

Stuffing

Stuffing

Stuffing

Information< container

Negative

Info

Info

Info

Info

Info

Info

Information> container

www.mapyourtech.com

Generation and Detection of SDH Performance

Generation Mechanism of TU Pointer Justification


Causation:
Transformed from AU pointer justification
The system clock is not consistent with the received clock

Pointer justification occurs at the upstream NE where the service


passes

Detection and Reporting of Pointer Justification


Remote detection:
Occur at the local station, report at the remote station

Local detection:
Generate at the local station, report locally

117

www.mapyourtech.com

Relationship between Alarms and


Performance
Relationship
Alarm and Performance are belong to different levels. Alarm
indicates the fault of transmission, performance indicates the signal
degrade of transmission. If the value of performance is high than
threshold it will translate into alarm. For example bit error can
translate into EXC alarm then causes the traffic interrupt.

Functions of alarm and performance for bit error threshold

crossing
Item

Performance Event
Local end

RS

118

RSBBE

Remote end

Alarm Event
Local end

Remote end

B1_OVER

MS MSBBE

MSFEBBE

B2_OVER

MS_REI

HP

HPBBE

HPFEBBE

B3_OVER

HP_REI

LP

LPBBE

LPFEBBE

BIP_OVER

LP_REI

www.mapyourtech.com

Relation between ES, SES and BBE


ES

SES

30 %

1 sec.

www.mapyourtech.com

nonEB

} EB

BBE

119

Terms and Definitions


(used by error performance)

EDC

Error Detection Code

Block

block

EB

Errored Block

Defect :

defect

ES

Errored Second

SES

Severely Errored Second

BBE

Background Block Error

CV

Code Violation

UAS

Unavailable Second

www.mapyourtech.com

120

Unavailable Second

10 sec.

< 10 sec.

Unavailability detected
Unavailable period

Error-free second

www.mapyourtech.com

Severely errored second


SES

10 sec.
Availability detected
Available period

Errored second
ES

121

Storage of PM data
15 minute accumulation
TCA (Threshold Crossing Alert)

32 periods with zero suppression

(32)

(2)

(1)

15 min.
hh : 15n

Current 15 min.
data update : every 1 min.

hh : 15(n+1)

Zero Suppression
past

1 day accumulation

item a
item b

TCA (Threshold Crossing Alert)

time

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

item x
item y

(Yesterday)

Zero Suppression

PM items of one facility

1 day
0 : 00

future

0 : 00
Current 1 day (Today)
data update : every 1 min.

item a
item b

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

item x
item y

old

memory

new

all zero data with time stamp of occurrence

www.mapyourtech.com

122

Bit error defects family


EXC = EXCessively errored signal
DEG = DEGraded signal
CMI = Code Mark Inversion
All members of the [large] family of bit error defects have a common origin
errors in the transmission/reception of a signal.
SDH calculates a parity check and places the results in the overhead.
Occurs in both Tx and Rx. A difference indicates a bit error in transmission/reception
Another detection mechanism is for electrical signals
An invalid sequence is a code violation
PPI-EXC and ES-CMI defect originate from code violations.
SDH paths and sections may have EXC and DEG defects [Different degrees of errors]
EXC represent an EXCessive number of bit errors the signal is so badly errored as to be unusable
EXC defects represent a bit error ratio of 10-3 or 10-4.
EXC results in a protection switch at the closure point of a sub-network connection and may be

configured to insert AIS and RDI.

DEG defects represent a bit error ratio of 10-5 or less


DEG does not result in a protection switch or raising of any consequent action.

123

www.mapyourtech.com

What is Performance Monitoring

Performance monitoring is used to measure Traffic Quality


How? By counting anomalies and defects.
Why are they needed?
To diagnose faults in a network OR detect occurrence of dribbling errors.
Measure a networks performance and its service capability.
At the edge of the network
Within the network

Check service level agreements for end customers and find out whether

they have been satisfied or breached.

Reporting performance monitoring


NE collects and logs PMs continuously for all connections.
EC-1 collects PMs from all NEs in span of control.
INM collects PMs from the complete network.

124

www.mapyourtech.com

Performance Monitoring Points


Performance Monitoring Points [PMPs]
are points at which software collects performance monitoring [PM]

data. The PM data is a measure of the quality of the transmission path


at that point.
LP_NE V5, B3

TU_PJE

LP_FE V5, G1
PDH
End User

Vc-12

PDH
End User

Vc-12
PPI_CV

HP_FE G1
Vc-4

Vc-4

AU_PJE

NE1
RS-OOF A1, A2
RS-NE B1
125

HP_NE B3

MS_NE B2
STM-N

MS_FE M1

www.mapyourtech.com

Optical Link via Network

NE2

Table of PM points
PMs count will occur at the same points as where alarms will occur
FE[Far End] PMs are associated with the RDI defect category.
The destination you are sending to has received your signal in a defective state.

PMP-Type

Byte

RS-OOF

A1, A2

RS-NE

B1

RS-LOS, RS-LOF

MS_NE

B2

All RS defects, MS-AIS, MS-EXC

MS_FE

M1

MS-RDI

AU_PJE

N/A

N/A

HP_NE,
HPOM_NE

B3

All RS, MS defects, AU-AIS, AU-LOP, HP-LOM, HP-TIM, HP-PLM, HP-EXC

HP_FE, HPOM_FE

G1

HP-RDI

TU_PJE

N/A

N/A

LP_FE

G1[VC-3]

HP-RDI, LP-RDI

LPOM_FE

V5(b3[VC-12]

LP_NE

B3[VC-3]

LPOM_NE

V5(b1-b2[VC-12]

All RS, MS, AU, HP defects, TU-AIS, TU-LOP, LP-TIM, LP-PLM, LP-EXC,
INT-LO-BUFFER

ES-CV

N/A

ES-LOS

N/A

PPI-LOS

PPI-CV

126

www.mapyourtech.com

Defects

BIP Errors vs Block Errors


B1 is an 8 bit parity byte, calculated across the complete SDH frame

[2430 bytes for an STM-1 signal].


B1 byte is generated/terminated at every NE.

ANSI specifies BIP


ETSI/ITU specifies Block Errors
The B1 Byte is treated as 1 block
The B1 Byte is treated as BIP-8 [since it has 8 bits]

Example
Transmitted
0

127

Received
0

www.mapyourtech.com

1= 1 Block Error, = 1 BIP Error

1= 1 Block Error, = 2 BIP Errors

0= 1 Block Error, = 5 BIP Errors

0= 1 Block Error, = 8 BIP Errors

= Bit Error

Definition of BBE, ES, SES, UAS


Background Block Error [BBE]
A Background Block Error [BBE] is a single errored Block in the SDH

frame, not occurring as part of an SES or a UAS.


Errored Second [ES]
An Errored Second [ES] is a second during which at least one anomaly or
one defect occurs, but not occurring as part of a UAS.
Severely Errored Second [SES]
A Severely Errored Second [SES] is a second during which at least X
anomalies or one defect occurs, but not occurring as part of a UAS. By
definition an SES is always an ES.
Unavailable Second [UAS]
An Unavailable Second is a second during which the signal is
unavailable. It becomes unavailable at the onset of 10 consecutive
seconds that qualify as SES, and continue to be unavailable until the
onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES.

128

www.mapyourtech.com

How to interrupt SES and UAS


The difference between SES and UAS is conceptually difficult to understand.
Therefore it is better clarified through the use of a diagram.
Unavailable periods/detection and available periods/detection are indicated.

<10secs

10secs

<10secs

Unavailability
Detected

Available Period

= SES
129

Unavailable Period

= Non SES

www.mapyourtech.com

10secs
Availability
Detected

Available Period

Processing of B1 byte
This can be broken down into activities performed in hardware and

software.
15-minute
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

Calculate
B1 block
errors
SDH
Frame

Frame B1
errors

1- Second
Filter
SDH
Frame

Frame RS
defects,
LOS, LOF

15-Minute
Filter

www.mapyourtech.com

TIME BBE
00:00
3
00:15
5
00:30
1

ES
3
4
1

SES
1
0
0

UAS
0
0
0

1- second
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

24-Hour
Filter

Determine
RS defects
130

15-Minute PM Counts

24-hour
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

24-Hour PM Counts
BBE
40
34
21

ES SES
33
0
16 20
4
2

UAS
0
20
0

Calculating B1 block errors.

The calculation of B1 block errors occurs in hardware.


Conceptually this can be understood via a diagram.
Frame X

Frame X+1

Frame X+2

}
Actual B1
byte

Calculate
expected
B1 byte

131

Compare
actual with
Expected B1 byte
expected
www.mapyourtech.com
B1 byte

B1 errors

1- Second Filter
1-Second Filter

Frame B1
errors

1Second
filter

1- second
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

Frame RS
defect, LOS,
LOF

B1 Errors (x)
x = 0
0 < x < 2400
x >= 2400 (< 10 secs)
x >= 2400 (> 10 secs)

BBE
0
x
0
0

ES
0
1
1
0

SES
0
0
1
0

UAS
0
0
0
1

Defects
No Defects
LOS, LOF (< 10 secs)
LOS, LOF (> 10 secs)

BBE
0
0
0

ES
0
1
0

SES
0
1
0

UAS
0
0
1

SDH Frame B1 Errors/Defects


DATE
01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

TIME
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00

00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00

FRAME
0001
0002
0003

7998
7999
8000

B1 Errors
0
0
1
.
.
.
0
0
0
---TOTAL B1 Errors (x) =
0001

132

www.mapyourtech.com

Defects
.
.
.
-

1-Second PM Counts
DATE
01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

TIME
00:00:00
00:00:01
00:00:02

BBE
1
x
x

ES
1
x
x

SES
0
x
x

UAS
0
x
x

15-Minute Filter

1- second
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

15Minute
Filter

1-Second PM Counts
DATE
01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

133

TIME
00:00:00
00:00:01
00:00:02

00:14:57
00:14:58
00:14:59

15-Minute
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

15-Minute PM Counts
BBE
1
0
0
.
.
.
2
0
0

ES
1
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
0

www.mapyourtech.com

SES
0
0
1
.
.
.
0
0
0

UAS
0
0
0
.
.
.
0
0
0

DATE
01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

TIME
00:00
00:15
00:30

BBE
3
x
x

ES
3
x
x

SES
1
x
x

UAS
0
x
x

24 Hour Filter

1- second
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

24-Hour
Filter

24-Hour
BBE, ES, SES,
UAS

1-Second PM Counts
DATE
01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

01/01/2000
01/01/2000
01/01/2000

134

TIME
00:00:00
00:00:01
00:00:02

23:59:57
23:59:58
23:59:59

BBE
1
0
0
30
.
4
0
5
0

ES
1
0
1
.
30
.
0
1
0

www.mapyourtech.com

SES
0
0
1
.
1
.
1
0
0

UAS
0
0
0
.
.
.
0
0
0

24-Hour PM Counts
DATE
01/01/2000
02/01/2000
03/01/2000

BBE
40
x
x
.
.
.

ES
33
x
x
.
.
.

SES
3
x
x
.
.
.

UAS
0
x
x
.
.
.

Accumulation of PMs over time

2 Seconds
that
qualify as
SES

10 Second
Period

TIME
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

B1 Errors
5
50
500
5000
0
40
400
4000
2500
2700
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
0
50
0
100
0
30
0
35
0
0
0
40
0
0

Defects
LOS
LOS
LOS
LOS
LOF
LOF
TOTAL

135

www.mapyourtech.com

BBE=
5 ES= 1 SES=
BBE= 50 ES=
1 SES=
BBE= 500 ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE= 40 ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
1 SES=
BBE=
ES=
SES=
BBE= 595 ES= 15 SES=

UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
1 UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
UAS=
1 UAS=
UAS=
11 UAS=

B1 errors
5000 > 2400 [<10
secs]

Defects
LOS, LOF (< 10 secs)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Unavailabili
ty
Detected

B1 errors
X > 2400 [>10
secs]
AND / OR
Defects
LOS, LOF
Unavailabl
[>10secs]

e Period

Availabilit
y
B1 errors
Detected
12

X < 2400
[>10secs]
AND / OR
Defects

FAQs

136

www.mapyourtech.com

Question and Answers


What is the difference between an anomaly and a defect?
Anomaly is a single occurrence of, or commencement of a condition
Defect is a persistent or repeated occurrence of an anomaly
What is the main difference between a POM alarm and a LO or HO alarm?
LPs / HPs are present on termination
POMs are present when traffic is un-terminated
What is the main principle behind masking?
Present alarm closet to source
Reduce the amount of fault analysis and alarm presentation
A car fail alarm is raised on a PIU, What should you do?
This alarm needs to be cleared first because it will mask all other alarms raised on the

card/slot instance
What is the difference between a regenerator and a multiplexer?
Regenerator terminates the RSOH, MSOH + payload continue, regenerator generates
new OH
Multiplexer fulfils the same function of a regenerator and also terminates / generates a
MSOH

137

www.mapyourtech.com

Question and Answers


What alarms does the Multiplex Section Termination give?
Provides pointer processing and gives AU alarms
Where are the Low Path Termination points?
On PDH tributaries
If an unprotected limb has two POMs present which one is active the Rx or the Tx?
Rx is active
In a protected connection is a limb has a HPT or LPT present can HPOM/LPOM also

be active?
Yes
Which bytes are responsible for the reporting of a LOF alarm, what section
overhead are they found?
A1 and A2 In RSOH
Where is AIS reported in relation to a defect?
AIS is reported downstream from a defect, a user would look upstream to
resolve the issue

138

www.mapyourtech.com

Question and Answers


Why is there no RS-AIS alarm?
Possibly redundancy [Like the TIM alarms which only has RS-TIM]
Could also be that RS alarms on regenerators are passive and operate as a pass

through. Multiplexers drop traffic and are better therefore to address issue
How many consequent actions are there and what are they?
AIS, RDI/REI and protection switches
Which alarm is more serious, RDI or REI?
RDI is more serious
What type of cards produce CMI alarms?
Electrical cards [comes from Code Mark Inversion line coding]
What consequent actions does a DEG alarm produce?
It doesnt
What type of payload would you expect on the raising of a UNEQ alarm?
0
What bytes carry PM information and where are they calculated?
B1, B2 and B3. Calculated in hardware

139

www.mapyourtech.com

References

Various presentation collected from Internet {Huawei,Tejas,Nortel & Marconi) available


free of cost

www.mapyourtech.com

www.google.com

For further queries do reach on www.mapyourtech.com


140

www.mapyourtech.com

Thank You!

141

www.mapyourtech.com