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Research Method for ITIM


ITIM Department
Abdi Dufera( Msc.)

By the end of this course, you should be able to:

Discuss the important concepts of

scientific research in business;
Examine the processes involved in doing
Prepare a research proposal;
Implement a research project in
business; and
Conduct a research project in business.
Define the meaning of research and the
different types of research;
Discuss the criteria of quality research;
Assess the responsibilities of a
researcher and the user/sponsor of the
research; and
Examine the needs to acquire skills to
do research

1. Introduction to

What is research?
Research can be defined as
The search for knowledge, or as any
systematic investigation, with an
open mind to;
Establish novel facts,

Solve new or existing problems,

Prove new ideas, or
Develop new theories, usually using a
scientific method

Research Defn cont

Research is the process of gathering

the information needed to answer
certain questions and thereby helping in
solving problems faced by an individual,
firm, organization or society.
Therefore, research is something
which people undertake to find out
something in a systematic way, thereby
increasing their knowledge.
It is a primary tool used in virtually all
areas of science to expand the frontiers of

Characteristics of Scientific
Controlled; set up your study in a way
that minimizes the effects of other factors
affecting the relationship.
Rigorous; the procedures followed to find
answers to questions are relevant,
appropriate and justified. Every effort is
made to reduce error.
Valid and verifiable; this concept implies
that whatever you conclude on the basis of
your findings is correct and can be verified
by you and others.

Empirical; conclusion drawn are based
upon hard evidence gathered from
information collected from real life
experiences or observations.
Critical; critical examination of the
procedures used and the methods
employed is critical to a research inquiry.
The process of investigation must be fullproof and free from and draw backs. The
process adopted and procedures used must
be able to withstand external examination.

Systematic and logical; implies that the
procedures adopted to undertake an
investigation follows a certain logical
sequence. The different steps can not be
taken in a hazard way. Some procedures
must follow others.

Types of research
Research can be classified by
purpose or by method. If we
categories it by purpose, it would fall
into two major categories: Basic
Research and Applied Research,
while in case of method, it would be
deductive research and inductive

1. Applied research.
In an applied research one solves
certain problems employing well known
and accepted theories and principles
Aim to solve specific, practical
problems, for policy formulation,
administration and understanding of a
Such a research is of practical use to
current activity. For example, research
on social problems has immediate use

Applied research cont.

It is use of basic research or past
theories, knowledge and methods for
solving an existing problem.
It deals with practical problems. It is
opposed to pure research which is
not problem-oriented but for the
increase in knowledge which may or
may not be used in future.

Applied Cont.
Thus, the central aim of applied
research is to find a solution to a
practical problem which warrants
solution for immediate use It involves.
There are many concerns regarding
the external validity; It can either be;
Experimental research, Case studies,
Survey etc

2. Basic research
Also called Pure or fundamental Research, it is
undertaken for increase in knowledge.
There is no direct benefit as it is a research for the
sake of research.
It is conducted to satisfy any interest such as: (a)
what makes things happen, (b) why society
changes and (c) why social relations are in a
certain way.
In fact, it is the source of most new theories,
principles and ideas. Basic research rarely helps
anyone directly. It only stimulates new ways of
thinking. The main motivation is to expand man's
knowledge. There is absolutely no commercial
value to the discoveries resulting from such

Basic cont.

Basic research is an investigation on

basic principles and reasons for
occurrence of a particular event or
process or phenomenon.
Not concerned with solving any practical
problems of immediate interest.
To sum up, basic research is purely
theoretical to increase our understanding
of certain phenomena or behavior but
does not seek to solve any existing

Types of Basic research

1. Descriptive ; which attempts to describe
systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon,
service or program, or provides information about ,
say, living condition of a community, or describes
attitudes towards an issue
2. Correlation research; attempts to discover or
establish the existence of a relationship/
interdependence between two or more aspects of a
3. Explanatory research; research attempts to
clarify why and how there is a relationship between
two or more aspects of a situation or phenomenon
4. Exploratory research; is undertaken to explore an
area where little is known or to investigate the
possibilities of undertaking a particular research
study (feasibility study / pilot study)