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Excitation System and PSS

EXCITATION SYSTEM AND


REACTIVE CAPABILITY CURVE

EXCITATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENT


The performance requirement of the excitation system are
determined by considerations of the synchronous generator as
well as power system.
GENERATOR CONSIDERATION
The basic requirement is that the excitation system supply and
automatically adjust the field current of the synchronous
generator to maintain the terminal voltage as the output varies
with the continuous capability of generator.

In addition, the excitation system must be able to respond to


transient disturbances with field forcing consistent with the
generator instantaneous and short term capabilities.
POWER SYSTEM CONSIDERATION
From the power system viewpoint, the excitation system
should contribute to effective control of voltage and
enhancement of system stability.
It should be capable of responding rapidly to disturbance so as
to enhance transient stability,
and of modulating the generator field so as to enhance smallsignal stability

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A


SYNCH. GENERATOR EXCITAION
CONTROL SYSTEM
LIMITERS AND
PROTECTIVE
CIRCUITS
TERMINAL VOLTAGE
TRANSDUCER AND
LOAD COMPENSATION

REF

REGULATOR

EXCITER

GENERATOR

POWER SYSTEM
STABILIZER

TO POWER
SYSTEM

ELEMENTS OF AN EXCITATION SYSTEM


EXCITER: Provides dc power to the synchronous
machines field winding, constituting the power stage
of the excitation system
REGULATOR: Processes and amplifies input control
signals to a level and form appropriate for control of
the exciter.

TERMINAL VOLATGE TRANSDUCER AND LOAD


COMPENSATOR: Senses generator terminal voltage, rectifies and
filters it to dc quantity and compares it with a reference, which
represents the desired terminal voltage. In addition, load
compensator may be provided, if it is desired to hold constant
voltage at some point electrically remote from the generator
terminal.
POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER: Provides an additional input
signal to the regulator to damp power system oscillation.
LIMITERS AND PROTECTIVE CIRCUITS: These include a wide
array of control and protective functions which ensures that
capability limits of exciter and synchronous generator are not
exceeded.

TYPES OF ECITATION SYSTEM


DC excitation system
AC excitation system
Static excitation system

STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM


(a). POTENTIAL SOURCE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
SYSTEM
GENERAL
In this system, the excitation power is supplied through a
transformer from the generator terminal or the station auxiliary
bus and is regulated by a controlled rectifier
LIMITATION
The maximum excitation output voltage is dependent on the
input ac voltage. Hence during system fault conditions causing
depressed generator terminal voltage , the available exciter
voltage is reduced.

POTENTIAL SOURCE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER SYSTEM

(b). COMPOUND SOURCE RECTIFIER


SYSTEM
GENERAL
The power to the excitation system in this case is formed by
utilizing the current as well as the voltage of the main
generator. This may be achieved by means of a power
potential transformer and a saturable current transformer.
Alternatively, the voltage and current sources may be
combined by utilizing a single excitation transformer, referred
to as saturable current potential transformer.

COMPOUND SOURCE RECTIFIER SYSTEM

(c). COMPOUND CONTROLLED


RECTIFIER EXCITATION SYSTEM
GENERAL
This system utilizes controlled rectifiers in the
exciter output circuits and the compounding of
voltage and current derived source within the
generator stator to provide excitation power

COMPOUND CONTROLLED RECTIFIER EXCITATION SYSTEM

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE MEASURE

EXCITATION CONTROL SYSTEM IN CLASSICAL FEEDBACK FORM

LARGE SIGNAL PERFORMANCE


MEASURE
Large signal performance measure provide a means
of assessing the excitation system performance for
severe transients such as those encountered in
consideration of transient mid term and large term
stability of power system. Such measures are:
Excitation system ceiling voltage
Excitation system ceiling current
Excitation system voltage time response
High initial-response excitation system
Excitation system nominal response

SMALL SIGNAL PERFORMANCE


MEASURE
Small signal performance measure provide a means
of evaluating the response of the closed-loop
excitation control system to incremental changes in
system conditions. Small signal performance may be
expressed in terms of performance indices
Indices associated with time response
Indices associated with frequency response

TYPICAL TIME REPONSE TO STEP


INPUT

EXCIATTION SYSTEM CONTROL AND


PROTECTIVE CIRCUITS

REACTIVE CAPABILITY LIMITS


The continuous reactive power output capability is
limited by three consideration:
Armature current limit
Field current limit
End region heating limit

(a). ARMATURE CURRENT LIMIT


The armature current results in
an RI power loss and the energy
associated with this loss must be
removed so as to limit the
increase in temperature of the
conductor and its immediate
environment
Per unit complex output is
S=P+Qi=EtIt*
=|Et||It|(cos+isin)

(b). FIELD CURRENT LIMIT


Because of the heat resulting from Rfdifd
power loss, the field current imposes a
second limit on the operation of the
generator.
Constant field current locus may be
developed by steady state equivalent
circuit shown in figure a aside. With
Xd=Xq=Xs, the equvalent circuit gives

(a)

relationship between Et and Eq(=Xadifd).


The corresponding phasor diagram is
shown in figure b

(b)

P=EtItcos=(Xad/Xs)Etifdsini
Q=EtItsin=(Xad/Xs)Etifdcosi-(Et /Xs)

The relationship between the active and reactive powers for a given field
current is a circle at (-Et /Xs)on the Q axis and with (Xad/Xs)Etifd as the
radius as shown in figure c

(c)

(c). END REGION HEATING LIMIT


The localized heating in the end region of the armature
imposes a third limit on the operation of a synchronous
machine. This limit affects the capability of the machine in the
under excited condition

SECTION VIEW OF END REGION OF A GENERATOR

END REGION HEATING LIMIT

REACTIVE CAPABILITY
CURVES OF A HYDROGENCOOLED GENERATOR AT
RATED VOLTAGE