Any

crime in which computer-related technology is encountered.

The commission of illegal acts through

the use of a computer or against a computer system.

Business attacks Financial attacks Terrorist attacks Grudge attacks Fun attacks

Fraud by computer manipulation. Computer forgery. Damage to or modifications of computer data or

programs.
Spamming Cyber terrorism

Unauthorized access to computer systems and service. Unauthorized reproduction of legally protected computer

programs .
Obscene or offensive content. Harassment. Drug trafficking.

Theft, Piracy Illegal Goods and Services Conspiracy Harassment Vandalism, Destruction of Property Interpersonal/Social Violence

 Lack of understanding  Lack of physical evidence  Lack of recognition of assets  Lack of political impact  Complexity of case  Juveniles

Multinational activity
 No international laws for computer crimes

Complexity
 Networked attacks hard to trace

The role in combating cyber crime is essentially two-fold:
(1)preventing cyber attacks before they occur or

limiting their scope by disseminating warnings and advisories about threats so that potential victims can protect themselves

(2) responding to attacks that do occur by investigating and identifying the perpetrator

 1960’s – Hacking began as problem-solving  1970’s  Privacy Violations, Salami Slicing (EFT), Phone Phreaking, Trespass; Distribution of Illicit Materials  1980’s  Software Piracy/Copyright violations, Viruses, Phone Phreaking, Trespass; Commercialization of Illicit Material Distribution  1990’s  IP Spoofing, File Transfer Protocol Abuse, Phantom Nodes, Protocol Flaws  2000’s  Automated Hacking, Desktop Forgery, International Industrial Espionage; Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorism (derived from Parker, SRI)

The Central Bureau of Investigation (C.B.I) in India set up a ‘Cyber Crime Investigation Cell’ and "Cyber Crime Research &Development Unit" (CCRDU) to collect and collate information on cyber crimes reported from different parts of the country.

Offence of online obscenity – section 67 Quantum of punishment reduced for first

Conviction
Earlier – 5 years Now- Reduced to 3 years Cyber crimes punishable with imprisonment of

three years are bail able offences.
Helps the cyber criminals

Confidential information and data of corporations and their adequate protection Not a comprehensive law on data protection or on

digital secrets.
Only a couple of sections on data protection. Offence of hacking – section 66 Completely deleted from the law book.

This actually impactsThe growing Indian economy The normal common man and Corporate India. The proposed amendments have in turn

made the IT Act like “A tiger without teeth”.

 Growth and development of cyber technologies

has changed the threat environment

 Technology creates dependencies that evolve to

interdependency  A significant attack on one can directly impact others (cascade effect) of cyber technologies redefines

 Pervasiveness

security  Physical attacks have cyber consequences and cyber attacks have physical consequences

Attackers well aware of the potential impact of using cyberspace  Nations adding Computer Network Warfare to strategy and doctrine  Terrorist groups developing cyber capabilities (Al Qaeda)  Criminal groups have been using cyberspace for years  Critical infrastructures prime target for exploitation and compromise (i.e., water, energy, chemical)
  Open society generates many

opportunities for information and financial exploitation

Financial Commercial Professional Occupational Recreational Ideological

Obviously computer crime is on the rise, but so is the awareness and ability to fight it.  Law enforcement realizes that it is happening more often than it is reported and are doing there best to improve existing laws and create new laws as appropriate.  The problem is not with the awareness or the laws, but with actually reporting that a crime has occurred.  Hopefully people will begin to realize that unless they report these crimes and get convictions, those committing computer crimes will continue to do so.

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