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Case 1

Secretary thought Urgent meant Serious

not Immediate

Case 1
Receiver (Secretary) missed
Purpose of communication
VP did not clearly & precisely specify the
time & date of the meeting

Case 2
Vinay Prasad Assistant Engineer
Employer NTPC, Delhi
Specialization High Voltage Power

Case 2
Reads ad about international power
conference in Chennai
Keen to attend
Writes immediately to Chief Power
Engineer -

The Chief Power Engineer

An international conference on power generation
which would be of great interest to us is being held
in Chennai. The enclosed brochure shows that the
technical information to be presented in the
conference would be of great help in our upcoming
projects. The registration fee is just Rs.5,000/- &
the cost of travel & stay about Rs.8,000/-. Hence,
only Rs.13,000/- will be required. I am informing
you about the conference now, so that you can take
a decision in time for me to make necessary
arrangements for train / flight bookings and stay.

CPE Replies
Vinay Prasad,
Thanks for informing me about the
conference in Chennai. I will certainly
attend it. Please make all the necessary
arrangements for me as suggested in
your memo
Ashok Jha

Barriers to communication
In communication, as a psycho-semantic barrier,
the word barrier implies, mainly something nonphysical that keeps people apart or prevents
activity, movement etc.
E.g. social / ethnic / language barriers or lack of
Negative forces may affect the effectiveness of
communication by acting upon
any or all of the basic elements of
communication process and
the sender / receiver / channel

Barriers to communication

Lack of planning
Wrong / unclarified
Semantic problems
(relating to words
Cultural barriers
Selective perception

Information overloaded
Loss by transmission
Poor retention
Poor listening
Goal conflicts
Offensive style
Time & distance
Abstracting (conceptual, not
Slanting (biased, favouring)
Inferring (conclude)

Barriers - sender
Lack of planning
Vagueness about the purpose of
o Objectives to be achieved
Choice of wrong language, resulting in
badly encoded message
Unshared & unclarified assumptions
Different perception of reality
Wrong choice of the channel

Barriers - Receiver

Poor listener
Lack of interest
Premature evaluation
Semantic Difficulties

Bias / Lack of trust

Different perception
of reality
Attitudinal clash with
Not in a fit physical

Common barrier

both sender & receiver

Absence of a common frame of reference

Affects smooth interpretation of
thoughts, feelings and attitudes from the
sender to the receiver in a specific social
A well-defined social context in which
communication takes place enables both
the sender & receiver to perceive the
content of communication in a similar way
with similar implications and meaning.

Common barrier

both sender & receiver

Physical noise & other faults in

surroundings & instruments of transmission
of message relate mainly to the channel
They may not distort the overall meaning
of the total message to be communicated
Most listed barriers are easy to
understand, but some still need explanation

Wrong & unclarified assumptions
All communications are made under some
assumptions, which are never communicated
They may turn out wrong & cause communication
E.g. we often assume that others
See the situation as we do
Should feel about the situation as we do
Think about the matter as we do
Understand the message as we understand it

Barriers -

Wrong & unclarified


All assumptions may be incorrect

Hence one should try to verify
whenever possible
Helps communication be effective


Socio - Psychological

1. Status
. Consciousness of ones status affects 2-way
flow of communication
. Creates personal barriers caused by superiorsubordinate relationship
. Though 2-way vertical channel exists in every
. Few subordinates choose to communicate with
their superiors and vice versa
. Though organizations are changing by adopting
flat structures, psychological distance between
superior subordinate exists


Socio - Psychological

2. Perception* & reality

. An important aspect of human communication
takes place in the world of reality which
surrounds us our sensory environment
. Sense organs stimulated by signs (external)
. Perceptions received are recreated within the
brain (internal)
. Both are 2 aspects of same reality
o. External which surrounds the communicator &
o. Internal mental representation as seen /
believed by the individual

(Insight, observation)


Socio Psychological

5 sense organs
Eyes sight
Ears sound
Nose smell
Tongue taste
Objects which excite the sense organs are called
Senses respond to signs - sensations transported to the brain through the sensory
nerve network


Socio - Psychological

Perceptions are mental images of external

work stored in our brain viewpoint,
experience, knowledge, feelings & emotions
Perceptions constitute what we are
How we think
How we feel OR
How we respond to something


Socio - Psychological

These stored perceptions colour and

modify whatever our brain receives from
any signs or set of signs, fresh data,
thoughts or messages.
These conditioning perceptions are called
The mind filters the message received
from the signs and gives it meaning
according to individual perception


Socio - Psychological

An individuals filter is unique

Bcoz filters differ, different individuals
respond to a sign (word, gesture etc) with
different understanding and will assign a
meaning according to his/her filter
The presence of a unique filter in each
individual communicator and receiver
causes the communication gap (distortion)
in the message sent and message received


Socio - Psychological

Easy to remove gaps in facetoface

Understand through listeners facial expression,
body language gestures etc. or listener will
In a written communication - audience is invisible
semantic gap between intended meaning and
interpreted meaning remains unknown.
Feedback does help but it may be too late

Semantic relating to words meanings linguistics relating to meaning or the

differences between meanings of words or symbols

Conditions for successful


Communication is to share information with others in an

intelligible, participative form through the medium of words /
body gestures / other symbolic signs

2 basic aspects of communication

1. Purpose - Message is to be both known & understood by
2. Communication - verbal or non-verbal -is a symbolic act by
. purpose + nature ----- act as determining influences in this
theory & practice of communication in all contexts of speaking
or writing



7 Cs
Communi cation





1. Candidness
Honest, sincere & frank
Speak & listen without prejudice or bias
Candidness implies consideration of listeners
interests and need to know things objectively
& fairly
If receiver is to understand, communication
should be characterized by you attitude
Also exhibits speakers self-confidence

2. Clarity
Most important in all communications especially
To express clearly, use accurate and familiar words
with proper intonation, stresses & pauses
Spoken language
short sentences

should consist of simple words &

In one to one communication, listener can obtain

immediate clarification in case of any doubt due to
lack of clarity

3. Completeness
Clarity also ensured by completeness of message
The principle of completeness requires that whatever
is necessary is communicated, provide answers to all
possible questions add extra information etc.
If no information or answer / unwilling to answer or
discuss any particular question frankly express
inability to answer

4. Conciseness
In business and professional
communications, brevity with minimum
words is important
Avoid being repetitive
Less words doesnt mean making less sense
Without sacrificing essential meaning,
achieve intensity and concentration &
Use single words for wordy phrases



1. At this point of time

2. As regards the fact
3. Because of the fact
4. Are in need of .
5. In due course of time
6. Not very far from

1. Now / at present
2. Considering..
3. As / because
4. Need
5. Soon / shortly
6. Nearby / close by

5. Concreteness
Be specific / definite in describing

Includes vivid description of event /

Avoid vague words

Abstract words

Concrete Words

A significant loss

A 53 % loss

Good attendance record

100 % attendance record

Light in weight

Feather light

In the near future

By noon, Thursday


6. Correctness
Grammatical errors common in spoken
Speaker tends to forget the number
and person of the subject of the verb if
sentence is too long. Even sequence of
tense is wrong
Pronoun is incorrect especially in
reported speech

6. Correctness
He said to me that I will surely go there
He told me that he would surely go there
Being an experienced manager, we are
sure you can resolve the conflict
As you are an experienced manager, we
are sure you can resolve the conflict

7. Courtesy
An effective speaker maintains proper
decorum whether at meetings,
conversing, GDs etc
Courtesy demands not using words
which are insulting or hurtful to listener
In biz discussions, listen patiently
without interrupting
Wait for chance to speak when its your
turn then speak with force and clarity

7. Courtesy
Tone should reflect respect for listener
Pitch should not sound as it is talking at
each other but to each other
Tone should not be aggressive
Tone should be level and measured
make or break a discussion



Good communication can only be in

proper English.

Communication occurs when the

message is sent.

One cannot change ones basic style

of communication .

Good communicators are excellent

Communication is about maintaining
relationships within an organization.