Biomechanics of Airborne and Arm-Supported Activities

Airborne and Arm-Supported Activities
• Performance success depends on
– Sufficient angular impulse to generate optimum angular momentum
• Position of body • Forces generated at takeoff

– Complete aerial rotation and prepare for landing
• Shape of projectile • Time available for flight

Basic principles of airborne and swinging activities
• Eccentric force (torque) applied can produce rotation • Aerial rotation
– Axis of rotation passes through CM

• Swinging activities
– Axis of rotation through grip of hands, bars, rings, other surfaces

Momentum = Torque = Force x Distance (┴)

Basic principles of airborne and swinging activities
• Generate sufficient torque to provide angular momentum
– Complete number of rotations – Prepare for landing

• Prepare speed and time of rotation actions

Basic principles of airborne and swinging activities
• Sufficient vertical height

1 2 s = at 2
• Angular velocity can be changed by changing body position • Flight path is determined at takeoff, cannot adjust in airborne

Basic principles of airborne and swinging activities
• Time required depends on
– Body position – Number of rotations – Angle of takeoff

Determinants of Skilled Movements
• Amplitude
– Bigness of movments
• External amplitude ; range covered by CM
– Depends on impulse of propulsive action

Determinants of Skilled Movements
• Amplitude (cont.)
– Bigness of movments
• Internal amplitude ; relative ROM of body segments
– The greater segmental velocity and ROM, the greater the ability to perform complex elements

Determinants of Skilled Movements
• Segmentation
– Human body is made up of 14 segments – Skill proficiency is inversely related to number of segments used – Any actions of segment affects location of CM and distribution of forces through body

Determinants of Skilled Movements
• Closure
– Relates to internal amplitude – Concerned with absolute changes in shape

• Peaking
– Concerned with precise timing of body changes

Rotary Motion
• CG and axis of rotation • Angular momentum
– Mass – Radius of gyration – Angular velocity

Initiating Rotations
• Ground reaction rotations
– Initiate rotation around ML (somersaulting) and longitudinal (twisting) axes – CG is ahead of line of action of GRF – External torque is created about ML axis through performer’s CG

Initiating Rotations in Air
• Reaction rotation
– Movements of arms, legs or trunk causes reaction or movement response of rest of system in opposite direction

Initiating Rotations in Air
• Cat rotation
– Complicated version of reaction rotation

Initiating Rotations in Air
• Twist for somersault
– The most common technique used – Body must have angular momentum established about axis at takeoff

Mechanics of Arm-Supported Skills
• Rotations in vertical plane are affected by gravity
– Motive in descent – Resistive in ascent

• Rotations in horizontal plane get no motive impulse from gravity

Swing
• 3 forces and a couple act upon
– W = weight – R = reaction force exerted by bar
• Normal (centripetal) component • Tangential component

– A = air resistance – M = resultant moment of frictional forces

Swing
• Weight

Swing
• Centripetal component
– Repeatedly change direction – CG moves along curved path – 4 times bw as swing under bar in giant swing

• Tangential component
– Eccentric force; serves to accelerate in direction about axis

Swing
• Moment

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