12.

3 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS AND HOMOLOGOUS SERIES

Lecture 3 Functional Group and Homologous Series
Learning Outcomes: At the end of the lesson the students should be able to :  Define functional group.  Name functional groups and classify organic compounds according to their functional groups.  Define homologous series and explain general characteristics of its members.

Functional group
 is

an atom or group of atoms in an organic molecule which characterised the molecule and enables it to react in specific ways which determines its chemical properties.

Functional groups are important for three reasons: A basic by which organic compounds are divided into different classes. A basic for naming organic compounds A particular functional group will always undergo similar types of chemical reactions.

i.

ii. iii.

Homologous Series
 is

series of compounds where each member differs from the next member by a constant – CH2 unit of the same homologous series are called homologs.

 Members

Homologs Features
1.

Obey a general formula:

Examples:  Alkane: CnH2n +2  Alkene: CnH2n  Alcohol : CnH2n+1 OH
2. 3.

Differ from the successive homolog by a CH2 unit Show a gradual change in the physical properties

4. 5. 6.

Have same functional group Have similar chemical properties Can be prepared by similar general methods

Classification of organic compound Functional Group
Structure

Class of Compound Alkane

Example CH3-CH3

Name

Alkene

-C=C-

carbon-carbon double bond CH3CH=CH2 carbon-carbon triple bond CH3C CCH3

Alkyne

-C C-

Aromatic

Benzene ring

-CH3

Haloalkane

X (F, Cl, Br, I) Halogen

CH3Cl

Alcohol

-OH

Hydroxyl

CH3-OH

Phenol

-OH

Hydroxyl

-OH

Ether

-C-O-C-

Alkoxide

CH3-O-CH3

Aldehyde

-C=O H R-C=O R -C=O OH -C-O-CO -C=O Cl

CH3-C=O Carbonyl H CH3-C=O Carbonyl CH3 CH3-C=O Carboxyl OH CH3-C=O Carboalkoxy OCH3 CH3-C=O Cl

Ketone Carboxylic acid

Ester

Acyl chloride

Anhydride Amide

O O -C-O-C-C=O N-NH2 -C N

O O CH3C-O-CCH3 Carboxamide CH3-C=O NH2 Amino Cyano group CH3-NH2 CH3C N

Amine Nitrile

Exercises: 1. Identify the functional group in the following molecules a)(CH3)3CCH2CH=CH2 b)(CH3)3CCH=CHCH2-OH

c)

O C

O

O CH3

OH C O C O C CH3

CH3 CH2 OH CH2 CH3 C C C CH O

NH2

NH2 CH C CH2 O

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.