CHAPTER 21 POLYMERS

FJ/Chemistry Unit, KMPk/Mac 2006 1

21.1 : Introduction
Polymer is a macro molecule that is made up of many small repeating units called monomers linked together by covalent bond.

-

monomer polymer polymer can be represented by their repeating unit in the long chain.

nA

-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-An

nA
-

Monomer polymer is a basic molecular units that can joined unit) (repeating to many others to form a polymer.

-A-n

2

Homopolymer a polymer formed from only one types monomer units.

nA

-A-n

-

Example :

nCH2 CH2
ethene (ethylene)

-CH2CH2n
polyethene (polyethylene)

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Copolymer a polymer formed from two or more different monomers.

nA + nB

-A-Bn

-

Example :

nCH2 CCl2 + nCH2 CHCl
1,1-dichloroethene 1-chloroethene

-CH2-CCl2-CH2-CHCln
Saran®

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21.2 : Structures of Polymers
21.2.1 : Linear Polymers Linear polymer is a polymer consist of monomers that are linked in straight and long continuous chain. Linear or straight-chain polymer can be folded back upon themselves in a random fashion. Linear polymer is recycleable because it is soft and can be reformed when heated.

-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-n
monomers link together in a straight chain folded linear polymer in a random fashion

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21.2.2 : Cross-linked Polymers Cross-linked polymer contains branches that connect linear polymer chain, as shown in the figures below.

-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-AX X -A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-

Cross-linked polymer is harder (rigid) and more elastic polymer compared to linear polymer. It also cannot be remelted or remolded again.

• Long polymer chain cross-linked by branched

The equation below shows the chemical reaction for the rubber vulcanization process.

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In a vulcanization process, long chain of polyisoprene are cross-linked by sulphur atoms.

CH3 -CH2C CH-CH2+

CH3 -CH2C CH-CH2-

sulphur CH3 CH3

-CHC CH-CH2-CHC CH-CH2S After vulcanizationS rubber becomes more stable over wide ranges of temperature and far more durable than natural rubber. -CHC CH-CH2-CHC CH-CH2CH3 CH3

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21.3 : Types of Polymers
21.3.1 : Natural Polymers Natural polymers are polymers that synthesized in nature or naturally occurring polymers. i. Proteins Protein are the most abundant organic molecules in animals such as enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin and many other things. It is a natural polymer built from amino acids linked by amide bonds.

H O HN-C-C R n 8

ii. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates such as starch is also a polymer. i. Starch (amylose)

H O

CH2OH O HH H OH H O H OH

CH2OH O H H OH H O H OH n

ii. Starch (amylopectin) -

α-(1,4)-glycosidic linkages contains α-(1,4)-glycosidic and α-(1,6)-glycosidic linkages.

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iii. Natural Rubber Natural rubber is a polymer of 2-methyl-1,3-butadiena, also known as isoprene.

n CH2=C-CH=CH2 CH3
isoprene

-CH2-C=CHCH2CH3
cis-polyisoprene

n

Another name for natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene.

All the double bond in natural rubber are cis- configuration.

Natural rubber is soft, not strong or elastic and sticky, that makes it less useful. In order to make it more useful rubber has to undergo a vulcanization process.

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21.3.2 : Synthetic Polymers Synthetic polymers are polymers that are prepared in industries from monomers that have gone through polymerization process. Polymerization is a process that combines monomers to form polymers. Synthetic polymers can be classified base on their method of preparation ( polymerization process ). 21.3.2.1 : Addition Polymerization Addition polymerization is the addition reaction in which unsaturated monomers are joined together by covalent bonds to form a polymer without elimination of a small molecule. Polymers obtained by addition polymerization are called addition polymers.

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Therefore, addition polymer always involves the polymerization of monomers which have double bond within the monomers. Peroxide is used as initiator in addition polymerization. i. Formation of polyethene

n CH2 CH2
ethene

ROOR

-CH2-CH2( )n
polyethene

ii. Formation of polyvinyl chloride

n HC CH2
chloroethene

ROOR

( -HC-CH2)n Cl

Cl

polychloroethene (polyvinyl chloride or PVC)

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iii. Formation of polystyrene

n HC CH2

ROOR

( -HC-CH2)n

phenylethene (styrene) iv. Formation of polyisopropene

Polyphenylethene (polystyrene)

n CH 2 =C-CH=CH 2 CH 3
isoprene

-CH 2 -C=CHCH 2CH 3
polyisoprene

n

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21.3.2.2 : Condensation Polymerization Condensation polymerization is a process that combines the monomers with elimination of a small molecule such as water, methanol, hydrogen chloride or ammonia to form a polymer. The polymers obtained from condensation polymerization are called condensation polymers. The monomers involves in this polymerization must have at least two identical or different functional group in the molecule. When a carboxylic acid with two –COOH group reacts with an amine with two –NH2 groups, a polyamide is formed. When a carboxylic acid with two –COOH group reacts with an alcohol with two –OH groups, a polyester is formed.

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(A). Polyamides i. Formation of Nylon 6,6

O
hexane-1,6-diamine

O

n H2N-(CH2)6-NH2 + n HO-C-(CH2)4-C-OH
hexane-1,6-dioic acid

O H H O ( -N-(CH2)6-N-C-(CH2)4-C-n + n H2O )
Nylon 6,6 ii. Formation of Nylon 6

O n H2N-(CH2)5-C-OH
6-aminohexanoic Nylon 6

O ( -NH-(CH2)5-C- + n H2O )n

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iii. Formation of Kevlar

H n H-N-

H

O

O -C-Cl

-N-H + n Cl-C-

1,4-diaminobenzene

terephthalic acid

H
(B). Polyester

H O -N-C-

O

-C n + n HCl The repeating functional groups in this polymer chain are ester. NThe most familiar polyester is polyethylene terephthalate known as Dacron and Kevlar Terylene.

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The polymer is formed by the reaction of ethylene glycol with methyl ester or terephtalic acid. In this process, a molecule of methanol is split out for each new ester group formed. i. Formation of Dacron

O n CH3O-C-

O -C-OCH3 + n HO-CH2CH2-OH
1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol)

dimethyl terephthalate

O ( -O-CH2CH2-O-C-

O -C- + n CH3OH )n
metanol

Dacron or poly(ethylene terephthalate)

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ii. Formation of Terylene

O n HO-CH 2CH 2-OH
ethane-1,2-diol

O -C-OH

+

n HO-C-

benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid

O ( -O-CH 2CH 2-O-CTerylene

O -C- + n H 2O )n
water

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21.4 : Uses of Synthetic Polymers
No. Polymer Uses plastics, drinking bottles, toys piping, floor tiles, clothing, toys, wire covering containers, thermal insulation-ice buckets Textile Sweater Bullet proof vest Fabric Fiber-optic material

1 Polyethene 2 Polyvinyl chloride 3 Polystyrene 4 Nylon 6 5 Nylon 6,6 6 Kevlar 7 Dacron 8 Terylene

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