You are on page 1of 154

Steel Erection - OSHAs

First Negotiated Rule

Subpart R - Steel Erection


Issued January 18, 2001
Long overdue updating of the existing standard
Addresses hazards associated with: double
connections, column stability, falls, hoisting &
rigging, joist installation, engineered metal
buildings, decking, multiple lifts, structural
stability
Effective Date: January 18, 2002
+ Phase-in of Component requirements, e.g.,
bolt holes for joist connections, etc. (permit
obtained before, 1/18/01) or steel erection began
before 9/16/01

Layout of Subpart R
.750 - Scope
.751 - Definitions
.752 - Site Layout,
Site-specific Erection
Plan & Construction
Sequencing
.753 - Hoisting &
Rigging
.754 - Structural Steel
Assembly
.755 - Column
Anchorage

.756 - Beams &


Columns
.757 - Open Web Steel
Joists
.758 - Systemsengineered Metal
Buildings
.759 - Falling Object
Protection
.760 - Fall Protection
.761 - Training
Appendices A - H

Scope of Subpart R
Subpart R applies to steel erection
activities such as, connecting, bolting,
plumbing & guying, joist installation,
decking, and related work (e.g., hoisting
& rigging) that occurs in tiered and nontiered buildings, bridges, stadiums, and
special structures BUT NOT
communication and broadcast towers or
tanks (e.g., water or fuel tanks)

1926.751 - Definitions
Connector - means an employee who, working
with hoisting equipment, is placing &

connecting structural members

and/or components.

Hoisting Equipment means a


crane or a derrick NOT a come-along!

A come-a-long
Mechanical device
usually consisting of a
chain or cable attached
at each end, that is
used to facilitate
movement of materials
through leverage.
This is not considered
hoisting equipment.

Topping
Out

Derrick floor: An elevated floor of


a building or structure that has been
designated to receive hoisted pieces of steel
prior to final placement

Opening
A gap or void 12
inches or more in its
least dimension in a
floor, roof or other
walking/working
surface.
Skylights and
smoke domes shall
be regarded as
openings.

Project structural engineer of


record
Registered, licensed
professional engineer
responsible for the
design of structural
steel framing and
whose seal appears on
the structural contract
documents.

Shear connector
Steel bars, steel
lugs, headed steel
studs, and similar
devices which are
attached to a
structural member
for the purpose of
achieving
composite action
with concrete.

Steel joist
An open web,
secondary loadcarrying member of
144 feet or less,
designed by the
manufacturer, used for
the support of floors
and roofs.
This does not include
structural steel trusses
or cold-formed joists.

Steel joist girder


An open web,
primary loadcarrying member,
designed by a
manufacturer, used
for the support of
floors and roofs.

Systems-engineered metal
building
Field-assembled
building system
consisting of framing,
roof and wall
coverings.

1926.752
Site layout, site-specific
erection plan and
construction sequence

(a) Approval to begin steel


erection
ASTM standard test method (concrete
must be 75% of the minimum
compressive design strength): footings,
piers, walls
Repairs, replacements and modifications
to anchor bolts made in accordance with
1926.755(b)

(b) Commencement of Steel Erection


Steel Erector shall not erect steel unless it
has received written notification of the
requirements of (a) have been met

(c) Site layout (controlling


contractor shall provide):
Adequate access
A firm, properly graded, drained
area, readily accessible for the
safe storage of materials and the
safe operation of equipment

Adequate space for storage of


materials

1926.753 - Hoisting &


Rigging
Crane inspections as per ANSI B30.51994
Qualified operator is in charge of lifts
and has final call
Qualified rigger
OK to use man baskets (1926.550(g)(2)
does not apply, rest of .550 does apply)
Preplan routes to minimize employee
exposure to suspended loads
Multiple lift rigging procedures.

Critical lift
A lift that (1) exceeds
75 percent of the
rated capacity of the
crane or derrick, or
(2) requires the use
of more than one
crane or derrick.

Can You
Christmas
Tree
Steel?

Multiple lift rigging

(1)

Multiple lift shall only be performed if the following


are met:

multiple lift rigging assembly is used;


maximum members is hoisted of five
per lift;
only structural members are lifted;
and
employees engaged in the lift have
been trained in the procedures in
1926.761 (c)(1)
Construction Safety Council

(4)The multiple lift rigging


assembly shall be rigged with the
members:
rigged from the top down

attached at their center of


gravity and maintained level

Construction Safety Council

rigged at
least 7 feet
apart

(2) Components of the multiple lift rigging assembly


shall be specifically designed and assembled with
a maximum capacity for total assembly and for
each individual attachment point.
Capacity must be certified by the manufacturer or
a qualified rigger and have a 5 to 1 safety factor

Construction Safety Council

(3) The total load shall not


exceed:
The rated capacity of the
hoisting equipment
The rigging capacity
(4) The multiple lift rigging
assembly shall be rigged
with the members:
attached at their
center of gravity and
maintained level;
rigged from the top
down; and
rigged at least 7 feet
apart

1926.753(e)
(5) The members on the
multiple lift rigging
assembly shall be set
from the bottom up.
(6) Controlled load
lowering shall be used
whenever the load is over
the connectors.

Typical Multiple
Lift Rigging
Assembly
What do you
need to know?
How much does
each piece weigh?

E (shackle)
B

F (hook)

What size slings?


What size and type
of hooks?
What size of
shackles?

G
H (shackle)
I (hook)

Another
variation of a
manufactured
multiple lift
rigging
assembly

1926.754 Structural
Steel
Assembly

1926.754(a) -

Structural
stability SHALL
be maintained
at ALL times
during the
erection
process!

1926.754 Structural Steel


Assembly

(b)(3) - maintain fully planked or decked


floor or net 2 stories or 30 ft. below any
erection work
(c) Walking/working surfaces - trip
hazards and slip resistance (SR effective
7/18/06)
(d) Plumbing-up - as per competent
person
(e) Metal decking - (2)(iii) - metal decking
holes/openings SHALL not be cut until
immediately prior to being filled/used

Plumbing Up!

Metal decking
Commercially
manufactured, structural
grade, cold rolled metal
panel formed into a series
of parallel ribs; this
includes metal floor, and
roof decks, standing
seam metal roofs, other
metal roof systems and
other products such as
bar gratings, checker
plate, expanded metal
panels.

Decking hole
A gap or void more
than 2 inches in its
least dimension and
less than 12 inches
in its greatest
dimension in a floor,
roof or other
walking/working
surface.

Framed metal deck


openings
Must be
turned down
to allow
continuous
deck
installation
except where
not allowed by
structural
design.

Skylights and smoke


domes shall be
regarded as openings.

1926.755 - Column Anchorage


(a) General
requirements for
erection stability
Columns anchored
by a min. of 4 rods
(bolts)
Each anchor rod,
assembly including
base plate and
foundation, designed
to resist a 300#
eccentric load at 18
from the column face

1926.755 - Column Anchorage


(a) (continued)
Columns set on level
finished floors, pregrouted leveling
plates, leveling nuts,
or shim packs
All columns shall be
evaluated by a
competent person to
determine whether
guying or bracing is
needed

(b) Repair, Replacement Or

Field Modification

(1) Need approval of the project structural engineer.


(2) Prior to column erection, the controlling contractor shall
provide written notification to the steel erector if there has
been any repair, etc., to the anchor rods (bolts).

Construction Safety Council

Field modification of anchor rods

Shim Packs

How many can you use?

New bolt not


tested!

New bolt not


made!= 2 anchor
bolts

Prevent Steel
Collapse!
4 bolts minimum per
column! [.755(a)]
Repair, replacement
or field modification
of anchor bolts must
be approved by the
structural engineer of
record! [.755(b)]

Construction Safety Council

1926.756 Beams &


Columns

(a)General. Secured with


at least two bolts per
connection. Competent
person to evaluate.
(b)Diagonal bracing.
With bracing, secured by
at least one bolt per
connection.
(c)Double connections at
columns and/or at beam
webs over a column. At
least one bolt or similar
connection device is
present.

Two bolts per connection

Double connection
Attachment
method where
the connection
point is intended
for two pieces of
steel which
share common
bolts on either
side of a central
piece.

In order to make the


double
connection:
the connector has
to back out the bolts
hold the beam in
place with a spud
wrench (fig. 1)
When second
beam arrives, align
and hold it with a
spud wrench
push bolts back
through first beam
into second beam
and secure in place.

(old way no
beam seat,
flanged or
clipped
connection
used)

1926.756 - Beams & Columns (c) Double connections at columns and/or


at beam webs over a column: At least one
bolt or similar connection device must be
present (e.g., a beam seat, etc.)
Clipped
connection

Staggered
connection

Double connection seat


Structural
attachment that,
during the
installation of a
double connection,
supports the first
member while the
second member is
connected.

Construction Safety Council

(d)Column splices.
Designed to resist a
300# eccentric load
located at 18 from
column face.
(e)Perimeter
columns. Must
extend a min. of 48
above the finished
floor for safety
cables. Holes or
other attachment
device attached to
perimeter columns

Column splice

Vertical stabilizer plate

Post

Diagonal bracing
Solid web structural
members used as
diagonal bracing must
be secured by at least
one bolt per
connection drawn up
wrench tight or the
equivalent as specified
by the project
structural engineer of
record.

1926.757 - Open Web Steel


Joists

Addresses proper joist end attachment,


erection procedures
erection bridging requirements according to
Tables A & B (similar to SJI Tables)
Holes in joists/bolting required for joists in
40+ bays
Requirements for landing and placing loads on
joists
Some requirements may be modified through a
site-specific erection plan (tandem setting of
some 60+ joists and requirements for landing
decking bundles)

Anchored bridging
Steel joist
bridging is
connected to a
bridging
terminus point.

Bolted diagonal bridging


Diagonal
bridging that is
bolted to a steel
joist or joists.

Bridging clip
A device that is
attached to the
steel joist to allow
the bolting of the
bridging to the
steel joist.

Bridging terminus point


Means a wall,
beam,tandem joists (with
all bridging installed and
horizontal truss in the
plane of the top cord) or
other element at an end
or intermediate point of a
line of bridging that
provides an anchor point
for the steel joist
bridging.
(Bridging is secured to
the wall or beam)

Steel Erection Operation


An employee was
assigned to connect
the X-braces at the
end of 40-foot long
bar joists. Only one
end of the bar joist
he was working on
had been welded.
The employee was
sitting on the
unwelded end of the
bar joist trying to
connect the Xbraces. He lost his
balance, dislodging
the bar joist from its
end support, and fell
approximately 24 feet
to his death.

Five iron workers were


distributing 90-foot-long
open web bar joists on a
building under construction.
The bar joists were
supported by vertical
columns spaced 30 feet
apart. The steel columns
were not framed in at least
two directions and the bar
joists were not field bolted
to the vertical columns to
prevent collapse. The bar
joists shifted, causing the
vertical columns to lean.
This caused entire section
of columns and pen web bar
joists to collapse. Two
employees rode the iron
down. One was fatally
injured and one received
serious injuries.

Steel Erection Operation

1926.757 - Open Web Steel


Joists
When columns not
framed in 2 directions
by beams, Steel joists
shall be field-bolted
at the column
Hoist cables not
released until joists
are field-bolted and
the bottom chord is
restrained by
stabilizer plate

1926.757 - Open Web Steel


Joists
(b) Attachment of steel
joists and steel girders:
K, LH & DLH
series joists to be
attached by specific
welds or equivalent
bolts
except for panels, each
joist shall be attached to
the support structure at
least on one end of both
sides of the seat
immediately upon
placement

1926.757 - Open Web Steel


Joists
(c) Erection of
steel joists: as per
incorporated SJI
tables
(d) Erection
bridging
(e) Landing &
placing loads

Bolted joists

Construction load

1926.758 - Systems-Engineered Metal


Buildings

Specific requirements for metal buildings (e.g.,


Butler buildings, etc.) including:

4 anchor rods/column
rigid frames to have 50% of bolts or mfg spec.
girt connections
joists and purlins

System-Engineered Metal
Buildings
Rigid frames will have 50
percent of their bolts or
the number of bolts
specified by the
manufacturer (which
ever is greater) installed
and tightened before the
hoisting equipment is
released.

System-Engineered Metal
Buildings
Minimum of four
(4) anchor rods
(anchor bolts)
per structural
columns

Girt
Is the Z or C
shaped member
formed from sheet
steel spanning
between primary
framing and
supporting wall
materials.
(Engineered metal
buildings)

Z shaped girt

Purlin
In systemsengineered metal
buildings, a Z or
C shaped member
formed from sheet
steel spanning
between primary
framing and
supporting roof
material.

Girt and eave strut - to frame


connections

1926.759 Falling Object Protection


(does not apply to materials being
hoisted)
Secure loose items aloft
Controlling contractor to bar
operations below steel erection
unless falling object protection
provided (from objects other than
hoisted materials)

Falling Object Protection


Secure all
loose items
aloft

1926.760 Fall Protection


All must be protected at heights greater than 2
stories or 30 feet, including connectors and
deckers
Between 15 and 30 feet: Fall protection required
for all with exceptions for:
Deckers in controlled decking zone (CDZ) and
Connectors
Connectors must be provided and wear equipment
necessary to be able to be tied-off, or be provided
with other means of fall protection

Personal fall arrest


system
Means a system used
to arrest an employee
in a fall from a working
level.
System consists of an
anchorage, connectors,
a body harness and
may include a lanyard,
deceleration device,
lifeline or suitable
combination of these.

Positioning device
Means a body belt or body
harness rigged to allow an
employee to be supported
on an elevated, vertical
surface, such as a wall or
column and work with both
hands free while leaning.

Fall Restraint?
= NO ( I mean ZERO!) Free Fall

1926.760 - Fall protection

1926.760(d)(1)- Fall Protection systems


shall meet the requirements of
1926.502!

Safety Nets

Connecting

Beamer

BEAMER IN USE

Beamer, Glyder, Girder Grip

RETRACTABLE LANYARDS

Roof Eye

Working Fast - Safely

2 Lanyards Minimum for 100%


FP

Uni Strut in Use

Scissors lifts and Man baskets

Horizontal Lifelines

1926.760 Fall Protection


(cont.)
Controlled decking zone:
For leading edge decking work
limited access
designated boundaries by control
lines
Work practices for attaching deck:
install safety attachments from leading
edge back
no final attachments allowed in CDZ
up to 3000 SF of unsecured decking

specific training requirements

Controlled Deck Zone (CDZ)

Safety deck attachment


An initial attachment
that is used to
secure an initially
placed sheet of
decking to keep
proper alignment
and bearing with
structural support
members.

Warning Line System


CDZs

Controlled
Decking Zones

1926.760 Fall Protection (cont.)


Perimeter cables required
Must be installed as soon as the metal
decking has been installed

Custody of Fall Protection


Equipment:
Controlling contractor must choose to
either:
accept responsibility for maintaining fall

protection equipment left by erector,


OR ensure that it is removed (.760(e))

Column attachments for


safety cable:

1926.761 Training

1926.761 Training
Qualified person to train workers
in use & operation of fall
protection equipment
Qualified person to train workers
engaged in specific activities:
christmas-treeing
connecting
CDZ procedures