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Employee Training

and Development

Learning is a relatively permanent change in


behaviour that results from direct or indirect
experience.
Learning Organisation: A learning
organisation is one whose employees
continously learn new things and to use
what they learn to improve product or
service quality.

Organisation learning is a process of detecting


and correcting errors.

(Chris Argyris)
Organisations where people continually expand
their capacity to create the results they truly
desire, where new patterns of thinking are
nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free,
and where people are continually learning.

(Peter Senge)

737 and 747 plane programs resulted in much fanfare and


poblems.
Comparison between development processes of 737 and
747 with 707 and 727.
An employee group was commissioned to compare the
development processes of 737 and 747 to 707 and 727,
two of companys most successful aircraft.
After working three years, they produced booklet.
Several members of the team transferred to 757 and 767
startups. They produced the most successful, error-free
launches in Boeings history.
Taken From Building a learning organization by
HBS professor David Garvin.

Training is a planned attempted by an


organisation to facilitate employee learning
of job-related, knowledge, skills and
behaviours.
Development refers to enhance the skills
needed for both present and future jobs.

NEED FOR TRAINING


The need for training arises because of the following
reasons:CHANGING TECHNOLOGY: Technology is changing at a
fast place. The workers must learn new techniques to
make use of advanced technology. Thus, training should
be treated as a continuous process to update the
employees in new methods & practices.
QUALITY CONSCIOUS CUSTOMERS: The customers have
become quality conscious & their requirements keep on
changing . To satisfy the customers, quality of products
must be improved through training of workers.
GREATER PRODUCTIVITY: It is essential to increase
productivity &reduce cost of production for meeting
competition in the market. Effective training can help
increase productivity of the workers.

STABLE WORKFORCE: Training creates a feeling


of confidence in the minds of the workers. It gives
them at the work place. As a result, labour
turnover & absenteeism rates are reduced.
INCREASED SAFETY: Trained workers handle the
machines safely. They also know the use of
various safety devices in the factory. Thus, they
are less prone to industrial accidents.
BETTER MANAGEMENT: Training can be used as
an effective tool of planning and control. It
develops skills among workers for the future and
also prepares them for promotion. It also helps to
increase productivity and quality.

Training vs. Development


Training is concerned with teaching specific job related skills
and behaviour. Development is future oriented training,
focusing on the personal growth of the employee.

Training vs. Development


L e a r n in g D im e n s io n

Tr a i n i n g

D e v e lo p m e n t

M e a n t fo r

O p e r a t iv e s

E x e c u tiv e s

Focus

C u r re n t jo b

C u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e jo b s

S cope

In d iv id u a l e m p lo y e e

W o r k g r o u p o r o r g a n is a t io n

G oal

F ix c u r r e n t s k il l d e f ic it

P re p a re fo r fu tu re w o rk d e m a n d s

In it ia t e d b y

M anagem ent

T h e I n d iv id u a l

C o n te n t

S p e c i f ic jo b r e l a t e d in f o r m a t i o n

G e n e r a l K n o w le d g e

T im e - fr a m e

I m m e d ia t e

L o n g te rm

Secret of Pixars successful computer animated


films.
a. All employees must have freedom to
communicate to other employees.
b. Safe for everyone to offer ideas.
c. the company must stay close to innovations
occurring in the academic community.

Pixar developed the "Pixar Braintrust," the studio's


primary creative development process, in which all
directors, writers, and lead storyboard artists at the
studio look at each other's projects on a regular
basis and give each other very candid "notes" .The
Braintrust operates under a philosophy of a
"filmmaker-driven studio", in which creative ones
help each other move their films forward through a
process somewhat likepeer review, as opposed to
the traditional Hollywood approach of an
"executive-driven studio

Pixar university offers collection of in-house courses


for training and cross training employees within
their specialty areas.

A Systematic Approach To Training


A systematic approach to training would consist of three phases: training
needs assessment, implementation and evaluation

Training needs assessment


Training efforts must aim at meeting the needs of the organisation and the
individual employees. This, essentially, involves three types of analysis:
a. Organisational analysis: This is a study of the entire organisation in
terms of its objectives, utilisation of resources to achieve objectives etc.
1. Analysis of objectives
2. Environmental scanning
3. Organisational climate analysis

Training needs assessment


b. Task or role analysis: this is a detailed examination of a job,
its components, its various operations and conditions under which
it

has to be performed.

c. Person analysis: here the focus is on the individual in a given


job;

whether training is needed, whether the employee is

capable of
needed.

being

trained, and the areas where the training is

A training program for 1800 hourly employees


resulted ineffective.
Test revealed that many employees had difficulty
reading and writing. As a result. They did not
comprehend materials used in training.
After basic skills test, the people who score low
were ineligible to attend training program.
Confidential counseling was provided.
A local community college provided basic skills
training close Georgia Pacific plant. And it was
made mandatory for employees to have college
education prior to training.

Data sources used in training needs


assessment
Organisational Analysis
Organisational goals and objectives

Task Analysis

Person Analysis

Job descriptions
Job specifications

Performance data or appraisal

Performance standards

Interviews

Organisational climate analysis


(KASOCs)

Performing the job

Questionnaires

Changes in systems or subsystems


(e.g., equipment)

Reviewing literature on
the job

Customer/employee
attitude surveys

Management requests

Asking questions about


the job

Training progress

Exit interviews

Training committees

Rating scales

MBO

Analysis of operating
problems

Customer surveys

Tests

Diaries
Devised situations (e.g., role
play)
Assessment centers
MBO or work planning systems

Training needs assessment

d. Identify training objectives: Training objectives can be of


three types. Organizations spending 100 billion US$ every year
for training purposes.

Objectives of training
O B J E C T IV E
In n o v a tiv e

A n t ic ip a t in g p r o b le m s
b e fo r e th e y o c c u r
Te a m b u ild in g
s e s s io n s w ith th e
d e p a r tm e n ts

P r o b le m s S o lv in g

T r a in in g c le r k s t o
r e d u c e c o m p la in ts
T r a in in g s u p e r v is o r s
in c o m m u n ic a tio n s
to re d u c e g rie v a n c e s

R e g u la r

O r ie n t a t io n
R e c u r r in g tr a in in g o f
in te r v ie w e r s
R e fr e s h e r c o u r s e s o n
s a fe ty p r o c e d u re s

Training needs assessment


e.

Training methods: Formal training methods include on the job training


covering job instruction training, coaching, mentoring, job rotation,
apprenticeship training, committee assignments etc and off the job
training including lectures, conference, simulation exercises and
programmed instruction.
f.

Evaluation: Evaluation helps in controlling and correcting the training


programme.

1.INDUCTION OR ORIENTATION TRAINING:Induction is concerned with introducing & its procedure


s,rules &regulations. Employee orientation or induction
training is nothing but introduction of the organisation
to the newly employed person. The purpose is to give a
birds eye view of the organisation where he has to
work. It is a very short informative training given
immediately after recruitment. It creates a feeling of
involvement in the minds of newly appointed
employees.
2.JOB TRAINING: Job training relates to a specific job
which the worker has to handle about machines,
process of production, and so on. It develop skills &
confidence among workers &enables them to perform
the job efficiently.

3.APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING:- It tends more towards


education them merely on the vocational training.
Under this both knowledge &skills in doing a job or a
series of related jobs are involved.
This training is desirable in industries which
require a constant flow of new employees expected to
become all round craftsmen. It is very prevalent in
printing trades, building &construction and crafts like
mechanics, electricians, welders etc.
4.INTERNSHIP TRAINING:- Under this method ,the
educational or vocational institute enters into
arrangement with an industrial enterprise for providing
practical knowledge to its students. Internship training
is usually meant for such vocations where advanced
theoretical knowledge is to be backed up by practical
experience on the job.