You are on page 1of 32

Work Study

Classical ILO Approach


Method Study
Work measurement

Work Study
Work study is a generic term for those
techniques, particularly Method Study
and Work Measurement, which are
used in the examination of of human
work in in all its contexts, and which
lead systematically to the investigation
of all factors which affect the efficiency
and economy of the situation being
reviewed in order to effect improvement.

Work Strudy
1. Work Measurement
2. Method Study

Work Measurement
It is the application of techniques designed
to establish the time required for a qualified
worker to carry out a specified job at a
defined level of performance.

Method Study
It is the systematic recording & critical
examination of existing & proposed ways of
doing work, as means of developing &
applying easier & more effective methods &
reducing costs

Productivity Management
Productivity Is Ratio Of Output To Input.
It Measures Utilization of Resources to
Produce Utilities.
Work Study Tries to Improve
Productivity of Labour, Material &
Machine By Taking A Re-look At Work
Content

Work Content
Basic work content
Work content added by defects in design
or specification of the product
Work Content added by inefficient methods
of manufacture
Ineffective time within the control of
worker
Ineffective time due to shortcomings of
management

Basic Steps in Work Study

Select
Record
Examine
Develop
Measure
Define
Install
Maintain

Primary Questions
Purpose

What is being done?


Why is the activity necessary at all?

Place

Where is it being done?


Why is it being done there?

Sequence

When is it being done?


Why is it being done at that time?

Person

Who is doing it?

Eliminate unnecessary
parts of job
Combine wherever
possible
Rearrange sequence of
operations for more
effective results

Why is that person doing it?


Means

How is it being done?


Why is it being done in that
particular manner?

Simplify the operation

Secondary Questions
Purpose
Place

What Why That


Where Why There

What else What should


Where
Where
else
should

Sequence When

Why Then

When
else

When
should

Person

Who

Why That
person

Who else

Who should

Means

How

Why that
way

How else

How should

Movement Diagrams
Flow Diagram
String Diagram
Travel Chart

Principles of Motion Economy


Use of Human Body
Arrangement of the workplace
Design of tools and equipments

Use of Human Body


Two hands should begin and complete their
movements at the same time
Two hands should not be idle at the same time.
Motion of arms should be symmetrical and in
opposite directions and simultaneous
Hand and body motions should be made at the
lowest classification.
Continuous curved movements are preferable to
straight line motion involving sudden & sharp
changes in direction.
Work should be arranged to permit easy and
natural rhythm.

Class

Pivot

Body Member

Knuckle

Finger

Wrist

Hand and Fingers

Elbow

Forearm, hand and fingers

Shoulder

Upper arm, forearm, hand and


fingers

Trunk

Torso, upper arm, forearm,


hand and fingers

Arrangement of workplace
Definite and fixed stations should be provided for all
tools and materials to permit habit formation.
Tools and materials should be pre-positioned to
reduce searching.
Tools and materials to be located in maximum
working area.
Tools and materials should be arranged to permit
best sequence of operations.
Provision should be made for adequate lighting and a
chair to permit good posture.
Colour of the workplace should contrast with that of
the work to reduce eye fatigue.

Design of Tool and Equipment


Hands should be relieved of all work of
holding the work-piece wherever
possible.
Two or more tools should be combined
wherever possible.
When each limb performs some specific
movement, load to be distributed in
accordance with the inherent strength of
the limb.

Design of Tool and Equipment


Cont

Handles should be designed so that


maximum surface of the hand is in
contact with it, especially when
considerable force is needed.
Levers, crossbars, hand-wheels should
be so placed that operative can reach
with least change in body position and
greatest mechanical advantage.

Charts - Process Sequence


Outline Process Charts
Flow Process Chart
Two Handed Process Chart

Outline Process Chart


An Outline Process Chart is a
process chart giving an overall
picture by recording in sequence
only the main operations and
inspections

Product
Blade 1

Handle 2

Rivet

Blade 2

Handle 2

Mfg Process
Activities

Description

Operation 1

Drill hole in Blade 1

Operation 2

Sharpen Blade 1

Inspection 1

Examine Blade 1

Operation 3

Fix Handle 1 to Blade 1

Operation 4

Drill hole in Blade 2

Operation 5

Sharpen Blade 2

Inspection 2

Examine Blade 2

Operation 6

Fix Handle 2 to Blade 2

Operation 7

Insert Rivet in both blades

Operation 8

Form head of Rivet

Inspection 3

Inspect the pair of scissors

Process Chart Symbols


Operation
Inspection
Transport
Temporary storage or delay
Permanent storage

Outline Process Chart


Rivet

Handle 1

Blade 1

Handle 2

Blade 2

(60)

(60)

(90)

(90)

(40)

2
1

(40)

5
2

(120)

(120)

(20)

(40)

8
9

(15)

Note : Figures in brackets are the durations for each activity

Flow Process Charts


A Flow Process Chart is a process
chart setting out the sequence of
the flow of a product or a procedure
by recording all events under
review using the appropriate
process chart symbols

Flow Process Charts


Flow Process Chart man type : A flow
process chart which records what the worker
does.

Flow Process Chart material type : A


flow process chart which records how
material is handled or treated.

Flow Process Chart equipment type : A


flow process chart which records how
equipment is used.

Process Chart Symbols


Operation
Inspection
Transport
Temporary storage or delay
Permanent storage