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1: An Introduction to Public Speaking 2: The Ethics of Public Speaking 3: Speaking Confidently 4: Responding to Speeches 5: Analyzing your Audience

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7: Researching Your Topic  8: Supporting Your Speech  9: Organizing the Body of Your Speech  10: Introducing and Concluding Your

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13: Delivering Your Speech  14: Using Presentational Aids  15: Speaking to Inform  16: The Strategy of Persuasion  17: The Structure of Persuasion  18: Speaking on Special Occasions

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Chapter 1 An Introduction to Public Speaking

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Chapter 1 An Introduction to Public Speaking

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Studying Public Speaking. . . . . . Helps you succeed in school / at work. . . . Increases your knowledge. . . . Helps build your confidence.

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We Remember. . .
• 10 • 20 • 30 • 70 percent percent percent percent of of of of what what what what we we we we read, hear, see, and speak.

Cited in William E. Arnold and Lynne McClure, Communication Training and Development, 2nd ed. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1996) 38.

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Levels of Communication
• Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • Group • Public • Mass

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Communication Elements Model

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Critical Thinking Skills
This skill. . .
Focusing

enables you to. . .
Define problems, set goals, select information Formulate questions, collect data Store and retrieve information Arrange information
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Information Gathering Remembering Organizing

Critical Thinking Skills
This skill. . .
Analyzing Generating Integrating

cont.

enables you to. . .
Clarify existing information Use prior knowledge Combine, summarize, and restructure information Assess the quality of ideas
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Evaluating

Adapted from Robert J. Marzano, Ronald S. Brandt, Carolyn Sue Hughes, Beau Fly Jones, Barbara Z. Presseisen, Stuart C. Rankin, and Charles Suhor, Dimensions of Thinking: A Framework for Curriculum and Instruction (Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1988) 66, 70-112. Copyright 1988 by ACSD. Reprinted with permission of the publishers.

Chapter 2 The Ethics of Public Speaking

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Principles of Ethics
• All parties have ethical responsibilities. • Ethics pervade character and action.

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Responsibilities of an Ethical Speaker
• Speak up about important issues. • Promote positive ethical values. • Speak to benefit your listeners. • Use truthful support and valid reasoning. • Consider the consequences. • Strive to improve your speaking.
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Responsibilities of an Ethical Listener
• Seek exposure to well-informed speakers. • Listen openly. • Listen critically. • Listen carefully.

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“Fair Use” Guidelines
• What is the character of the use I plan? • What is the nature of the work I plan to use? • How much of the work do I plan to use? • If the use I plan were widespread, what effect would it have on the market value of the original?
Georgia Harper, “Using the Four Factor Fair Use Test,” Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials, 5 Jan. 1998, U of Texas, Austin, 6 July 1999 < http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/copypol2.htm>. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004

Tips to Avoid Plagiarizing
• Take clear and consistent notes. • Record complete source citations. • Be clear in source citations. • Paraphrase in your own words, style, and structure. • When in doubt, cite the source.
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Chapter 2 The Ethics of Public Speaking

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Principles of Ethics
• All parties have ethical responsibilities. • Ethics pervade character and action.

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Responsibilities of an Ethical Speaker
• Speak up about important issues. • Promote positive ethical values. • Speak to benefit your listeners. • Use truthful support and valid reasoning. • Consider the consequences. • Strive to improve your speaking.
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Responsibilities of an Ethical Listener
• Seek exposure to well-informed speakers. • Listen openly. • Listen critically. • Listen carefully.

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“Fair Use” Guidelines
• What is the character of the use I plan? • What is the nature of the work I plan to use? • How much of the work do I plan to use? • If the use I plan were widespread, what effect would it have on the market value of the original?
Georgia Harper, “Using the Four Factor Fair Use Test,” Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials, 5 Jan. 1998, U of Texas, Austin, 6 July 1999 < http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/copypol2.htm>. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004

Tips to Avoid Plagiarizing
• Take clear and consistent notes. • Record complete source citations. • Be clear in source citations. • Paraphrase in your own words, style, and structure. • When in doubt, cite the source.
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Chapter 4 Responding to Speeches

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Listening
. . . . . . is intermittent. . . is a learned skill. . . is active. . . implies using the message received.

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The Process of Listening

You get the stimuli

You focus on stimuli

You attach meanings to stimuli

You integrate the message into your frame of reference

You judge the merits of the information

You decide what to do with the information

Receive

Select

Interpret

Understand

Evaluate

Resolve

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Obstacles to Effective Listening
• Physical distractions • Physiological distractions • Psychological distractions • Factual distractions • Semantic distractions

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Promoting Better Listening
• Desire to listen. • Focus on the message. • Listen for main ideas. • Understand the speaker’s point of view.
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Promoting Better Listening cont.
• Withhold judgment. • Reinforce the message. • Provide feedback. • Listen with the body. • Listen critically.

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A Model of Criticism
Judgments: statements of approval or disapproval, like or dislike Reasons: Justifications offered for judgments Norms: Standards of relative worth or goodness
This model of criticism is adapted from Beverly Whitaker Long, “Evaluating Performed Literature,” Studies in Interpretation, vol.2, eds. Esther M. Doyle and Virginia Hastings Floyd (Amsterdam: Podopi, 1977) 267-81. See also her earlier article: Beverly Whitaker, “Critical Reasons and Literature in Performance,” The Speech Teacher 18 (November 1969): 191-93. Long attributes this three-part model of criticism to Arnold Isenberg, “Critical Communication,” The Philosophical Review (July 1949): 330-44. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004

Guidelines for Critiquing Speeches
• Begin with a positive statement. • Target a few key areas for improvement. • Organize your comments. • Be specific. • Be honest but tactful.

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Guidelines for Critiquing Speeches cont.
• Personalize your comments. • Reinforce the positive. • Problem-solve the negative. • Provide the speaker with a plan of action. • End with a positive statement.
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Guidelines for Acting on Criticism
• Focus on what your critics say, not how they say it. • Seek clear and specific feedback. • Evaluate the feedback you receive. • Develop a plan of action.

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Chapter 5 Analyzing Your Audience

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Audience Demographics
• Age • Gender • Ethnicity • Education • Religion • Economic Status • Group Membership
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Levels of Influence
Behavior Attitudes Beliefs Values
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Belonging and Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Abraham H. Maslow, Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed. (New York: Random, 1970) 35-47. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004

VALS Typology
• Survivors • Makers • Strivers • Believers

Descriptions of categories are adapted from the VALS Segment Profiles, 1997, Stanford Research Institute, 12 June 1999 < http://www.future.sri.com/vals.segs.html>.

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VALS Typology cont.
• Experiencers • Achievers • Thinkers • Innovators

Descriptions of categories are adapted from the VALS Segment Profiles, 1997, Stanford Research Institute, 12 June 1999 < http://www.future.sri.com/vals.segs.html>.

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Specific Speaking Situations
• Types of audiences • Audience disposition • Size of audience • Occasion • Physical environment • Time
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Chapter 6 Selecting Your Speech Topic

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Choosing Your Speech Topic
You should. . . • First, generate a list:
– – – – Self-generated Audience-generated Occasion-generated Research-generated

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Choosing Your Speech Topic
cont. • Second, select a topic.
– – – – Am I interested? Is the topic important? Can I find supporting material? Do I understand the topic?

• Third, focus the topic.
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Visual Brainstorming

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Choosing Your Speech Topic
cont. • Fourth, determine the general purpose.
– To inform – To persuade – To entertain

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Choosing Your Speech Topic
cont. • Fifth, formulate your specific purpose.
– General purpose – Intended audience – Goal of your speech

• Finally, word your thesis statement. • If necessary, develop your speech title.

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Chapter 7 Researching Your Topic

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Assess Your Personal Knowledge
• Article file • Quotation file • Speech file

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Develop Your Research Plan
• What information do I need? • Where am I most likely to find it? • How do I obtain this information? • What about time constraints?

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Collect Your Information
• Magazines and journals • Newspapers • Government documents • Books

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Collect Your Information cont.
• Reference works • Television and radio • World Wide Web • Interviews • Calling, writing, e-mailing for info

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Record Your Information
• What to record • How to record information

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Conclude Your Search
“If the last 10 percent of your planned research time has brought excellent results, you are doubtless on a productive new track and should extend the project. But if the last 25 percent of your scheduled time has brought greatly diminished results, this fact is a signal to wind up your research.”

Alden Todd, Finding Facts Fast, 2nd ed. (Berkeley: Ten Speed, 1979) 14.

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Chapter 8 Supporting Your Speech

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Purposes of Supporting Materials • Clarity • Vividness • Credibility

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Types of Supporting Materials

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Examples
• Brief • Extended • Actual • Hypothetical

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Definition
• Synonym • Etymology • Example • Operation

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Narration
• Personal • Third-person

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Comparison and Contrast
• Literal • Figurative

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Statistics
• Don’t rely exclusively on statistics. • Round off. • Use familiar measures. • Use presentational aids. • Stress their impact.

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Testimony
• Direct quotation • Paraphrase

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Tests of Evidence
• • • • • • Is the evidence quoted in context? Is the source of the evidence an expert? Is the source of the evidence unbiased? Is the evidence relevant to the point? Is the evidence specific? Is the evidence sufficient to prove the point? • Is the evidence timely?
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Evaluating Electronic Information
• Purpose • Expertise • Objectivity • Accuracy • Timeliness
This checklist was adapted from Serena Fenton and Grace Reposa, “Evaluating the Goods,” Technology & Learning Sept. 1998: 28-32; Caroline L. Gilson, “Evaluating Information Resources,” 3 June 1999, McConnell Library, Radford Univ., 2 July 1999 <http://lib.runet.edu/hguide/Evaluating.html>; Esther Grassian, “Thinking Critically About World Wide Web Resources,” 10 Oct. 1997, UCLA College Library, 10 March 1999 <http:// www.accd.edu/SAC/LRC/gis/critical.htm>; Stephanie Michel, “Evaluating Information on the World Wide Web,” 9 June 1999, McConnell Library, Radford Univ., 2 July 1999 < http://lib.runet.edu/libserv/handout/evaluation.html>; Keith Stranger, “Criteria for Evaluating Internet Resources,” 30 Nov. 1998, University Library, Eastern Michigan Univ., 4 March 1999 <http:// online.emich.edu/~lib_stanger/ineteval.htm>.

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Citing Your Sources
“Oral footnotes”. . . • Enhance the credibility of what you say. • Help listeners find sources.

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Chapter 9 Organizing the Body of Your Speech

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Organizational Patterns
• • • • • • • • Topical Chronological Spatial Causal Pro-con Mnemonic or gimmick Problem-solution Need-plan
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The “4 S” Strategy
• Signpost • State • Support • Summarize

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Connect the Key Ideas
• Complementary • Causal • Contrasting • Chronological

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Chapter 10 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech

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Organize the Introduction
• First, get your audience’s attention.
– – – – – – – Question your audience. Arouse curiosity. Stimulate imagination. Promise something beneficial. Amuse your audience. Energize your audience. Acknowledge and compliment.

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Organize the Introduction

cont.

• Second, state your topic. • Third, establish the importance of your topic. • Fourth, establish your credibility. • Finally, preview your key ideas.

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Organize the Conclusion
• Summarize your key ideas. • Activate audience response to your speech. • Provide closure.

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Chapter 11 Outlining Your Speech

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An Outline. . .
• Tests the scope of content. • Tests the logical relations of the speech. • Tests the relevance of supporting ideas. • Checks the balance of the speech. • Serves as notes during delivery.
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Principles of Outlining
• Singularity • Consistency • Adequacy • Uniformity • Parallelism

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Stages of Outlining
• Working Outline • Formal Outline • Speaking Outline

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Chapter 12 Wording Your Speech

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Functions of Language
• Communicate ideas. • Send messages about the user. • Strengthen social bonds. • Serve as instrument of play. • Check language use.

Based on Roman Jakobson, “Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetic,” in Style in Language, ed. Thomas A. Sebok (Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1964) 350-74.

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Use Language Correctly
“Stronger English comes from making stronger choices, and exact wording, when it becomes a habit, can become fun as well as fascinating.” --Jeffrey McQuain
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Use Language Clearly
• Use specific language. • Use familiar language.

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Use Language Vividly
• Use active language. • Appeal to listeners’ senses. • Use figures of speech. • Use structures of speech.

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Use Language Appropriately
• Use oral style. • Use inclusive language.

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Chapter 13 Delivering Your Speech

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Principles of Nonverbal Communication
• Some communication is deliberate, while some is unintentional. • Few nonverbal signals have universal meaning.

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Principles of Nonverbal Communication cont.
• When verbal and nonverbal messages conflict, we trust the nonverbal message. • The audience’s perception can take precedence over your intent.

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Methods of Delivery
• Impromptu • From memory • From a manuscript • Extemporaneous

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Effective Delivery. . .
• Helps everyone. • Looks and feels natural, comfortable, and spontaneous. • Is best when the audience is not aware of it.

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Elements of Vocal Delivery
• Rate and pause • Volume • Pitch and inflection • Voice quality • Articulation and pronunciation

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Elements of Physical Delivery
• Appearance • Posture • Facial expression • Eye contact • Movement • Gestures
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Chapter 14 Using Presentational Aids

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Presentational Aids
• Increase message clarity. • Reinforce message impact. • Increase speaker dynamism. • Enhance speaker confidence.

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Types of Presentational Aids
• Objects • Graphics
– – – – – – – Picture Diagram Line Graph Bar Graph Pie Graph Chart Map
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Types of Presentational Aids
• Projections
– Still – Moving

cont.

• Electronic aids • Handouts • Audio and other aids

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Designing Presentational Aids
• Focus • Layout • Highlighting • Fonts • Color and art

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Using Presentational Aids
• Before the speech. . .
– Determine information to be presented. – Select the best type of aid. – Ensure easy viewing by audience. – Make sure information is clear. – Construct professional-looking aid.
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Using Presentational Aids
• Before the speech cont. . .
– – – – –

cont.

Practice with aid. Arrange for safe transportation. Carry back-up supplies. Properly position aid. Test presentational aid.

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Using Presentational Aids
• During the Speech. . .
– – – – – Conceal, then reveal. Talk to audience—not aid. Refer to aid. Keep aid in view. Conceal aid after you have used it. – Use handouts with caution.

cont.

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Chapter 14 Using Presentational Aids

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Presentational Aids
• Increase message clarity. • Reinforce message impact. • Increase speaker dynamism. • Enhance speaker confidence.

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Types of Presentational Aids
• Objects • Graphics
– – – – – – – Picture Diagram Line Graph Bar Graph Pie Graph Chart Map
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Types of Presentational Aids
• Projections
– Still – Moving

cont.

• Electronic aids • Handouts • Audio and other aids

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Designing Presentational Aids
• Focus • Layout • Highlighting • Fonts • Color and art

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Using Presentational Aids
• Before the speech. . .
– Determine information to be presented. – Select the best type of aid. – Ensure easy viewing by audience. – Make sure information is clear. – Construct professional-looking aid.
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Using Presentational Aids
• Before the speech cont. . .
– – – – –

cont.

Practice with aid. Arrange for safe transportation. Carry back-up supplies. Properly position aid. Test presentational aid.

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Using Presentational Aids
• During the Speech. . .
– – – – – Conceal, then reveal. Talk to audience—not aid. Refer to aid. Keep aid in view. Conceal aid after you have used it. – Use handouts with caution.

cont.

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Designing Presentational Aids
• Focus • Layout • Highlighting • Fonts • Color and art

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Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform

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Purposes of Informative Speeches
• Impart knowledge • Enhance understanding • Permit application

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Topic Categories for Informative Speeches
• People • Objects • Places • Events

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Topic Categories for Informative Speeches
• Processes • Concepts • Conditions • Issues

cont.

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Speaking to Inform
• Stress informative purpose. • Be specific. • Be clear. • Be accurate. • Limit ideas and supporting materials.
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Speaking to Inform

cont.

• Be relevant. • Be objective. • Use appropriate organization. • Use appropriate forms of support. • Use effective delivery.

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Chapter 16 The Strategy of Persuasion

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Persuasion is. . .

the process of influencing another person’s values, beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
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Types of Influence

Oppose
Strongly Moderately Slightly

Neutral
Slightly

Favor
Moderately Strongly

­­­

­­

­

0

+

++

+++

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The Pyramid of Persuasion
Behavior Attitudes Beliefs Values
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Types of Persuasive Speeches
• Speeches to Convince • Speeches to Actuate • Speeches to Inspire

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Three Modes of Persuasion
• Ethos: Speaker credibility • Logos: Logical appeal • Pathos: Emotional appeal

The Rhetoric of Aristotle, trans. Lane Cooper (New York: Appleton, 1960) 8.

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Persuasive Speaking Strategies. . .

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Persuasive Strategies
1. Establish your credibility.
– – – Convey competence. Convey trustworthiness. Convey dynamism.

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Persuasive Strategies cont.
2. Focus your goals.
– – Limit your goals. Argue incrementally.

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Persuasive Strategies cont.
3. Connect with your listeners.
– – – – Assess listeners’ knowledge of topic. Assess importance to audience. Motivate your listeners. Relate message to listeners’ values.

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Persuasive Strategies cont.
4. Organize your arguments.
– Primacy theory. – Recency theory.

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Persuasive Strategies cont.
5. Support your ideas. 6. Enhance your emotional appeals.
– – – – Tap Use Use Use audience values. vivid examples. emotive language. effective delivery.

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Chapter 17 The Structure of Persuasion

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Steps of an Argument
• You make a claim. • You offer evidence. • You show how the evidence proves the claim.

For a more elaborate discussion of the structure of an argument, see Stephen Toulmin, The Uses of Argument (New York: Cambridge UP, 1974).

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Refuting an Argument
• State the position you are refuting. • State your position. • Support your position. • Show how your position undermines the opposing argument.
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Types of Argument

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Argument by Example
• Are • Are • Are • Are the the the the examples examples examples examples true? relevant? sufficient? representative?

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Argument by Analogy
• Are the similarities between cases relevant? • Are any of the differences relevant?

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Argument by Cause
• Does a causal relationship exist? • Could the presumed cause produce the effect? • Could the effect result from other causes?

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Argument by Deduction
• Do the premises relate to each other? • Is the major premise true? • Is the minor premise true?

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Argument by Authority
• Is the source an expert? • Is the source unbiased?

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Fallacies of Argument
• Hasty generalization • False analogy • Post hoc ergo propter hoc • Slippery slope • Red herring

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Fallacies of Argument cont.
• Appeal to tradition • False dilemma • False authority • Bandwagon • Ad hominem

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Requirements of Propositions
Propositions. . . • Express a judgment. • Are debatable. • Require proof.

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Types of Propositions
• Propositions of Fact • Propositions of Value • Propositions of Policy

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Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
• Attention • Need • Satisfaction • Visualization • Action

Raymie E. Mckerrow, Bruce E. Gronbeck, Douglas Ehninger, and Alan H. Monroe, Principles and Types of Speech Communication, 14th ed. (New York: Addison-Longman, 2000) 153-161. See also: Alan H. Monroe, Principles and Types of Speech (Chicago: Scott, 1935).

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• This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • Any public non educational performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

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