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HRSG SIMULATION V.Ganapathy Knowing gas flow,temperature & analysis and steam parameters,establish HRSG temperature profiles,duty and steam flow

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V.Ganapathy

Knowing gas flow,temperature & analysis and steam

parameters,establish HRSG temperature profiles,duty and steam

flow. This is the design case,where for each surface we solve for:

UA=Q/ T

In the off-design case,we know the new gas flow & temperature.It is

desired to obtain the temperature profiles and steam flows. Calculation

is tedious as surface area is indirectly known. Correct (UA) for effects of

gas flow,temperature and analysis and solve for: Q=(UA)c T

In typical design,we compute U and then A for each surface.In

simulation we compute (UA) and hence there is no need to physically

the HRSG in terms of tube size,fin density etc.Hence anyone familiar

with heat balances can perform these studies.

Consultants,plant engineers,project planners

can use this method to evaluate HRSG

performance without even knowing its size!

They need not also contact a HRSG supplier!

Obtain design temperature profiles

Obtain off-design HRSG

performance(unfired/fired) at

different gas/steam conditions

Evaluate different gas turbines

during initial project planning stages

Maximize energy recovery by

modifying HRSG configuration

maximize energy recovery by

adding secondary heat recovery

such as deaerator,condensate

heater

cycle plant evaluation

relate it with HRSG performance

guarantees

by knowing HRSGs capabilities

HRSG!

with no external radiation

Note: This is the Design

mode ..We cannot preselect pinch and

approach points in offdesign mode!

pinch point,F

bare finned

a. evap type

approach point,F

1200-1800

130-150

30-60

40-70

700-1200

80-130

10-30

10-40

Pinch and Approach points are selected in unfired mode at

Design gas flow,exhaust gas temperature.These are called

design pinch and approach points

flow/inlet gas temperature/steam conditions,whether unfired or

fired.

Pinch/approach points increase with inlet gas temperature

They cannot be arbitrarily selected

-temperature cross can occur

-low pinch point may not be physically feasible unless extended surfaces are used

-affected by inlet gas temperature

-economizer steaming is a concern ;suggest minimum approach at coldest ambient

HRSG conditions

-steam temperature can be achieved in fired conditions if it is achieved in unfired

conditions

HRSG surfaces are determined once design pinch/approach points are selected

assumed

temperature cross can occur.Looking at the superheater and evaporator,we have:

WgxCpgx(tg1-tg3)=Ws(hso-hw2)

WgxCpgx(tg1-tg4)=Ws(hso-hw1)

Cpg with temperature,we have:

(tg1-tg3)/ (tg1-tg4)= (hso-hw2)/ (hso-hw1)=K

For steam generation to occur and

for a thermodynamically feasible

temperature profile,two conditions

must be met: If pinch and

approach points are arbitrarily

selected,one of these may not be

met.

Pinch=20F,approach=15 F,gas

inlet=900 F,feed water=230 F

(3)

Psig

stm temp,F

sat temp,F

exit gas,F

100

sat

338

.904

300

150

sat

366

.8704

313

250

sat

406

.8337

332

400

sat

448

.7895

353

400

600

450

.8063

367

600

sat

490

.7400

373

600

750

492

.7728

398

Temperature calculations

Example 1: Determine HRSG exit gas temperature when inlet gas temperature=900 F,steam

press=100 psig.use 20 F pinch and 15 F approach points.

Solution:K=0.904 sat temp=338 F.hence tg3=358F.tw2=323 F.(900-358)/(900-tg4)=0.904 or

tg4=300 F

Example 2: what is tg4 when steam press=600 psig and temp=750 F?

Solution:K=0.7728.sat temp=492 F.tw2=477F.tg3=512 F.(900-512)/(900-tg4)=0.7728 or tg4=398

F.So 300 F stack temperature is not feasible!

Example 3:Why cant we obtain 300 F at 600 psig,750 F steam?

Solution:K=0.7728 Let us compute tg3 from:(900-tg3)/(900-300)=0.7728 or tg3=436 F.This is

called temperature cross!

Example 4:What should be done to get 300 F stack temperature?

Solution:Increase tg1 by firing.say tg1=1600 F.(1600-tg3)/(1600-300)=0.7728 or tg3=595 F and

pinch=103 F.

Example 5:If tg1=800F,what is tg4 at 100 psig sat?

Solution:(800-358)/(800-tg4)=0.904 or tg4=312 vs 300 F when tg1 was 900F.

Example 6:With 1600 F gas inlet,can we use 20 F pinch?

Solution:(1600-512)/(1600-tg4)=0.7728 or tg4=192 F,which is below 230 F.Not feasible!

Thats why pinch & approach points should not be selected in the fired mode!We have no idea in

what range they can fall.

temperature profile calculations for HRSGs.

Assume pinch and approach points.

Saturation temperature ts is known by

assuming a pressure drop through the

superheater. tg3=ts+pp and tw2=ts-ap

Energy absorbed by sh +evap =

Q1=Superheater duty=Ws(hso-hv)=WgxCpgx(tg1-tg2) .Q1 and tg2 are thus obtained

From above,Q2=(Q12-Q1)=evaporator duty is obtained.

Economizer duty=Q3=Ws(1+bd)(hw2-hw1)=WgxCpg(tg3-tg4)xhl ; from this both Q3 and tg4

are obtained.

hl=heat loss is on the order of 0.5 to 1 %

bd=blow down varies from 1 to 7 % depending on feed water quality and boiler water

conditions.

Using the concept that firing in a HRSG is

100 % efficient,we can evaluate the

performance in fired case for estimation

purposes.

Example:160,000 lb/h of exhaust at 950 F

enters a HRSG to generate 600 psig

steam at 750 F from 230 F

water.Determine unfired steam production

and also burner duty,firing temperature

and exit gas temperature when generating

35,000 lb/h of steam at 600 psig,750 F.

Solution:Using 25 F pinch and 20 F approach,compute energy absorbed by

SH+evap=160,000x0.27x(950-517)x0.98=18.33 MM Btu/h=Ws(1378.9-455.4) or

Ws=19,850 lb/h. Energy absorbed by HRSG=19,850x(1378.9-199.7)=23.4 MM

Btu/h=160,000x0.98x0.268x(950-tg4) or tg4=393 F.

Fired case: Energy absorbed by steam=35000x(1378.9-199.7)=41.27 MM Btu/h.

Additional fuel energy required=(41.27-23.4)=17.87 MM Btu/h.

Oxygen consumed=17.87x106/(160000x58.4)=1.91 % So there is plenty of oxygen left.

Firing temperature=17.87x106=160000x0.3x(T-950) or T=1322 F

Exit gas temperature=1322-41.27x106 /(160000x.275x.98)=364 F

DESIGN

unfired

establishes configuration

establishes surface areas indirectly

only one case

zero desuperheater spray

pinch and approach points selected

OFF-DESIGN

unfired/fired/fan mode/combination

WHATIF STUDIES

effect of fuels

performance testing

effect of gas turbine load

variations in ambient temperature

The energy transferred to the evaporator is given by:

Q=WgCp(T1-T2)=UST=US (T1-T2)/ln[(T1-ts)/(T2-ts)] ; simplifying,

ln[(T1-ts)/(T2-ts)]=US/WgCp . In a fire tube boiler,U Wg0.8. For a water tube

boiler,U Wg0.6 ,neglecting the effects of temperature.

Then, Wg0.2ln[(T1-ts)/(T2-ts)]=K1 for a fire tube boiler

and Wg0.4ln[(T1-ts)/(T2-ts)]=K2 for a water tube boiler

steam at 250 psig with 100,000 lb/h of flue gas at 1000

F.Exit gas temperature is 500 F.What is the exit gas

temperature when 90,000 lb/h of flue gas enters the boiler

at 970 F and steam pressure is 200 psig?

1000000.4ln[(1000-406)/(500-406)]=184.4=K2

In the off-design case,900000.4ln[(970-388)/(T2388)]=184.4 or T2=473 F.Duty and steam generation may

be computed from this.

[406 and 388 F are saturation temperatures

corresponding to 250 and 200 psig respectively.]

Example:140,000 lb/h of turbine exhaust gases at 980 F enter a HRSG generating sat

steam at 200 psig.Determine the steam generation and temperature profiles if feed

water temperature is 230 Fand blow down=5%.

Solution: Let us choose a pinch point of 20F and approach of 15 F.Sat

temperature=388F. Gas temperature leaving evaporator=408 F and water temperature

entering it is 373 F.Evaporator duty=140000x.99x.27x(980-408)=21.4 Mm Btu/h. [ 1%

heat loss and average specific heat of 0.27 Btu/lbF is assumed]

Enthalpy absorbed in evaporator=1199.3-345+.05x(362.2-345)=855.2 Btu/lb

[1199.3,345 and 362.2 are enthalpies of sat steam,water entering evaporator and

saturated water respectively]. Hence steam generation=21.4x106/855.2=25,000 lb/h

Economizer duty=25000x1.05x(345-198.5)=3.84 Mm Btu/h .gas temperature

drop=3840000/(140000x.253x.99)=109 F.Hence exit gas temperature=408-109=299 F

Off-design Performance

Simulate the HRSG performance with a 165,000 lb/h of gas flow at 880 F.Steam

pressure =150 psig.

Using the model for evaporators discussed elsewhere,ln[(980-388)/(408388)]=Kx140000-0.4 or K=387.6 Under new conditions: ln[(880-366)/(Tg366)]=387x165000-0.4 =3.1724 or Tg=388 F.Evaporator duty=165000x.99x.27x(880388)=21.7 MM Btu/h

In order to determine the steam flow,the feed water temperature to evaporator must be

known.Try 360 F.Then steam flow=21.7x106/[1195.7-332)+.05x(338.5-332)]=25,110

lb/h. Economizer duty(assumed) Qa=25110x1.05x(332-198.5)=3.52MM

Btu/h.Compute (US)d=Q/T for economizer based on design conditions. Q=3.84x106

T =[(408-373)-(299-230)]/ln[(69/35)]=50 F.(US)d=3840000/50=76800. Correct this for

off-design case. (US)p=(US)dx(165000/140000).65=85200.The effect of variations in

gas temperature is minor and not considered. The energy transferred =(US)p xT.

Based on 360F water exit temperature,the economizer duty=3.52MM Btu/h and gas

temperature drop=3520000/(165000x.99x.253)=85 F or exit gas =388-85=303

F.T=[(303-230)-(388-350)]/ln[(73/28)]=47 F or transferred duty=85200x47=4.00 Mm

Btu/h.As this does not match the assumed value of 360F and duty ,another iteration is

required. It can be shown at 366 F,the balance is obtained.

Superheater performance

Performance of a superheater is obtained from: Q=(US)pT T=[(Tg1-ts2)-(Tg2ts2)]/ln[(Tg1-ts2)/(Tg2-ts2)] (US)p is obtained from design (US) values as follows:

(US)p=Wg0.65FgK1(Ws/Wsd)0.15 where K1=a constant obtained from design case =

Q1/(T Wg0.65Fg) where Fg = (Cp0.33k0.67/m0.32).Basically we are correcting for the

effects of: 1.Gas flow 2. gas analysis, gas temperature and hence gas properties, which

is significant if the superheater operates say in unfired and fired modes. Similar

constants K2,K3 may be evaluated for evaporator and economizer.

Example:In design mode, gas flow=150,000 lb/h.Gas in=900F and leaving SH=842F.

steam flow=18510 lb/h.steam pressure=450 psig. steam in=460F,out=650F.duty=2.34

MM Btu/h Cp=.273,m=.0826 ,k=.029. Fg=.2730.33x.0290.67/.08260.32=0.135.T=[(842-460)(900-650)]/ln[(842-460)/(900-650)] = 311F.Hence K1=2.34x106/(311x.135x1500000.65)

=24.1

Off-design:steam flow=18050 lb/h,gas flow=165000,gas in=840F.steam pressure=450

psig.Let exit steam temp=640F.Duty=18050x(1325-1204.4)=2.177MM Btu/h. Exit

gas=840-2177000/165000/.99/.271=791F. Since gas temperatures are close, Use same

Fg=0.135. (US)p=1650000.65x0.135x24.1x(18050/18510)0.15=7974. T=[(840-640)-(791460)]/ln[(840-640)-(791-460)]=260F. Hence Qt=7974x260=2.074MM Btu/h. This is close

to the assumed value, else another iteration would be required. The NTU method may

also be used here by using the new US term.

Performance may

be obtained even if

HRSG geometry is

unknown using

simulation concept.

Low steam/gas ratios

Low inlet gas temperatures(900 F vs 3300 F)

Temperature profiles depend on steam

pressure and temperature

Higher the pressure,lower the steam generation

Higher the steam temperature,lower the steam

generation (and higher the exit gas temperature)

Design with lower pinch and approach points

Use of secondary surfaces such as condensate

heater,heat exchanger,deaerator

Consider multiple pressure HRSG

Use supplementary firing

Optimize temperature profiles by rearranging

surfaces

Bottom line is to

lower the exit gas

temperature!

Data

base

975

exch

975

975

LP

evap

975

Stack gas temp,F

374

310

323

297

Steam to turbine,Klb/h

80

80

80

80

Steam to deaerator

10250

1730

3400

240

240

151

240

Electric power,kw

6528

6830

6770

6890

pr=2.5 in hg,steam at 620 psig,650F

HRSG

simulation

Knowing gas flow,temperature,analysis and steam parameters,establish HRSG

temperature profiles,duty and steam flows.In the design case,solve for:UA=Q/ T.In

the off-design case knowing the new gas parameters,use the NTU method to establish

performance using Q=(UA)T.Correct for UA using new gas parameters. We do not

have to compute U. Hence there is no need to know the tube size,fin details,HRSG

mechanical data;anyone can perform such calculations and evaluate HRSG

performance in unfired,fired modes,evaluate burner duty,optimize temperature

profiles,predict part load performance,review performance different gas turbines...

100 % load

Economizers

economizer and also the high exit gas temperature.

HRSG performance

temperature conditions to see if the performance is reasonable.

Design

basis

Note:Actual steam flow is 68,700 lb/h and exit gas temperature is 380 F,while it should have

been about 364 F.Hence further evaluations are necessary to check if HRSG design is

adequate. The gas flow was estimated based on steam duty and inlet/exit gas temperatures.

required. Customer wants about 40,000 kg/h,30

kg/cm2 steam and 3000 kg/h steam at 6 kg/cm2

in fired mode and about 3500 kg/h LP steam in

unfired mode,which is taken off the drum and

pressure reduced..

400 C and 30 kg/cm2 and 3000 kg/h

steam is taken off the drum for process

and pressure reduced to 6 kg/cm2

were 3 instead of 6 kg/cm2

LP steam pressure.

It may be seen that as long as the HRSG operates in the fired mode,the

single pressure system has the same performance as the dual pressure unit

when process LP steam is at 6 kg/cm2a,thus saving lot of expenditure, field

costs,operational costs etc. A pressure reducing station replaces a complete

LP evaporator,which could cost several hundred thousand dollars.If the LP

steam pressure were different,then the outcome will be different.When

process steam is at 3 kg/cm2a,then dual pressure looks attractive as seen in

columns 5 and 6.HP steam is at 30 kg/cm2a.So there is an optimum LP

pressure below which multiple pressure is justified. We cannot simply go for

dual pressure without doing this analysis. If the HRSG runs more often in

unfired mode,then a dual pressure may be warranted even at 6 kg/cm 2

Note the difference in steam generation

Q 1: Exhaust gas flow is 100,000 kg/h at 550 C. % volume

co2=3,h2o=7,h2o=75,o2=15. Steam at 60 kg/cm2a and 450 C is required.

Feed water is at 110 C and blow down=1 %. Using say 10 C pinch and

approach, arrive at the HRSG temperature profiles and steam generation.

at 10 kg/cm2a for saturated

as well as superheated

steam and discuss the

findings. If pinch and

approach increase by 5 C,

10 C, how much duty we

lose and also the steam

generation for Q 1 above?

Table shows enthalpy in

btu/lb vs temperature.

Temp,F

200

400

600

800

1000

enthalpy

34.98

86.19

138.7

192.48

247.56

45 kg/cm2a in operation, what is the HRSG performance,

duty, steam temperature and ASME efficiency?

flow x enthalpy+fuel input on LHV basis)

What are the effects of part load operation of gas turbine on HRSG and

effect of supplementary firing? Discuss.

Module 1

10

ACTUAL DESIGN

Mod 7 feeds 4. mod 8 feeds 7. mod 10 feeds 8 and 9 mod 5 fed by mod 9. mod 13 feeds 11 and 12

HRSGS program

Up to 6 pressure levels or thirteen modules

Complex configurations can be built up using common eco/sh

concept in a few minutes

Unfired/GT exhaust or fresh air fan fired performance

Gas turbine or fan operation or both combined

Automatically computes firing temperature,fuel consumption

given desired steam flow in off-design case

Steaming in economizer can be evaluated at part loads!

ASME PTC efficiency computed

All versions of Windows

User friendly. Get design as well as off-design performance of

HRSGs in a few minutes! Try the free DEMO!

Coil program- $ 750 :

http://vganapathy.tripod.com/coilpgm.html

Programs for steam plant engineers- $ 400

http://vganapathy.tripod.com/boil1.html

HRSG simulation program-$ 1500

http://vganapathy.tripod.com/hrsgs.html

coil program/hrsg simulation from above sites)

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