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ANALISIS SWOT

Strategic

Decision
Making

Dr. SETYO RIYANTO, SE, MM

MAGISTER PSIKOLOGI
UNIVERSITAS PADJADJARAN

Mandiri

POLRI
Profesional

Dipercay
a

Your community is changing


Your organization is changing
Your strategy is changing
And you?

What are you changing?

HASIL PENGAMATAN/STUDI LINGKUNGAN

MODEL MANAJEMEN STRATEGI


FORMULASI STRATEGI

EKSTERNA
L

Ideologi
Sosial
Politik
Ekonomi
Budaya
Kamdagri

IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI

EVALUASI
&
KENDALI

Misi

INTERNAL

Tujuan
Strategi
Kebijaka
n
Program

SDM
Struktur
Proses
Leadership

Infrastruktur

Wheelen & Hunger, 2012

Anggara
n
Prosedu
r
Kinerja

Umpan balik

What is the difference


between decision
making and decision
taking?

Decision making
Decision making is a complex, cognitive
process often defined as choosing a
particular course of action. Websters
definitionto judge or settleis
another view of decision making.
OR
a systematic cognitive process in which
there must be an identification of
alternatives.

Decision taking
Judgments selected from two or more
alternatives, it is final step of decision making.

Problem solving:
- is part of decision making. A systematic process
that focuses on analyzing a difficult situation,
problem solving always includes a decisionmaking step
OR
- is a process whereby a dilemma is identified
and corrected.
Problem :
- A present unsatisfactory state that needs to be
changed to a desired state as soon as possible
OR
- Some deviation from the expected standard
which prevent the achievement of objectives.

Strategic Management
Principle
Effective strategy-making
begins with a vision of
where the organization
needs to head!

Types of decisions

There are THREE main types of decision,


namely: routine, adaptive, and innovative
decisions.

A- Routine decisions:
is the decision made when problems are
relatively well defined and common and
when established rules, policies, and
procedures can be used to solve them.
B- Adaptive decisions:
is the decision made when problems and
alternative solutions are somewhat unusual
and only partially understood.

C- Innovative decisions:
is the decision made when problems are
unusual and unclear and creative solutions

DECISION

Decision....
DECISIONS
Kualitas seorang
PEMIMPIN
ditentukan oleh
seberapa baik dan
berkualitasnya
keputusankeputusan yang ia
hasilkan.

INFORMATION
Keputusan yang
baik akan sangat
bergantung
kepada kualitas
informasi yang
dimiliki oleh
pengambil
keputusan

DATA
Kualitas informasi
akan sangat
bergantung
kepada seberapa
baik data diolah,
sehingga menjadi
sebuah informasi.

Decision....
Merupakan hal yang sulit untuk memetakan
seluruh elemen permasalahan secara konseptual
Tanpa dibantu oleh suatu pendekatan dan teknik
pengambilan keputusan yang baik, hal-hal yang
penting sering menjadi terabaikan.dan tidak
jarang, hal-hal yang tidak penting justru
ditonjolkan
Oleh karenanya, tetap menjaga berbagai
elemen, kriteria serta alternatif berada pada

Grand Strategy Polri Menuju


2025
Tahap
Tahap
Tahap

I
II
III

(2005-2010) Membangun Kepercayaan


(2011-2015) Kemitraan
(2016-2025) Mengejar Kesempurnaan

15

Success failure status quo

Strategy Formulation
Mission Statement

The reason for the organizations existence in


society

Operating Objectives

Specific results that


organizations attempt
to achieve

Perubahan dipengaruhi oleh 4C:


Change, Competitor, Customer, dan Company

18

Effectiveness

of Analysis Tools
63.1

SWOT analysis

52.4

Competitor profiles

45.5

Financial analysis

31.4

Win/loss analysis
War gaming
Scenario development

21.9
19.2

Conjoint analysis

15.8

Simulating/modeling

15.4

10

20

30

40
50
60
Percent Rating Each Tool Extremelu or Very Effective
Source: Mc Kinsey, 2008

%
70

SWOT
Analys
is

A widely used tool for


organizing and utilizing
the pieces of data and
information gained from
the situation analysis
Encompasses both
internal and external
environments

((SWOT)
)
Analysis
An assessment of the organizations strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
Strengthscompetitive advantages or core
competencies
Weaknesseslimitations on competitive capability
Opportunitiesfavorable conditions in the
environment
Threatsconditions or barriers to reaching
objectives

((SWOT))
Strength | Weakness |Opportunities |
Threats

It defines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and


threats that face an organization.
It measures a unit, a proposition or idea.
We have here strengths - weaknesses from internal
factors and opportunities threats from external factors.
It helps in decision making how the institution may use
its strengths and opportunities to overcome weaknesses
and threats.

Major Benefits of SWOT Analysis

Simplicit
y

Lower
Cost

Flexibilit
y

Integratio
n&
Synthesis

Collaborati
on

STRENGTH

WEAKNESS

SWOT
OPPORTUNITIES

THREAT

Overview

The strategy is to look at the organizations


current performance (strengths and
weaknesses)

and factors in the external environment


(opportunities and threats) that might affect
the organizations future.

The SWOT matrix

SWOT Template

SWOT ANALYSIS
INTERNAL
Strenghts
Weakness

EXTERNAL
Opportunitie
Threat
s

A SWOT MATRIX
INTERNAL FACTOR

EXTERNAL FACTOR

Strenghts

Opportuniti
es
Strenghts

D
Threat

Weakness

Opportuniti
es
Weakness

C
Threat

The Four-Cell SWOT Matrix


CONVERT

STRENGHTSWEAKNESS
M
A
T
C
H

CONVERT

OPPORTUNITIES

THREAT

Source: Reproduced from Nigel F. Piercy, Market-Led Strategic Change. Copyright 1992, p. 371, with
permission from Elsevier Science.

The SWOT Matrix

Situational Analysis

STRENGHTS
Internal

WEAKNESS

OPPORTUNITIES

Externa
l

THREAT

SWOT Analysis
S

1.
2.
3.

Internal
Environment

O
External
Environment

Strengths

Opportunities
1.
2.
3.

Weaknesses
1.
2.
3.

Threats
1.
2.
3.

Where are we
now?

Where do we want
to go?

How do we get
there?

((SWOT))

Vision , Mission
and Goal

strategie

The Scanning

Enviroment
al
Scanning

Internal
Scanning

Process

External Scanning

Competitor
Customer
Supplier
Technology

Political
Economic
Legal
Sociocultural

Analysis

Analysis

Strenghts
Weakness

Opportuniti
es
Threats

((SWOT)
)
analysis

SWOT analysis of strengths,


weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

Planning: Focus and Time


Strategic plans
Plans that are organization-wide, establish overall
objectives, and position an organization in terms of
its environment

Tactical plans
Plans that specify the details of how an
organizations overall objectives are to be achieved

Short-term plans
Plans that cover less than one year

Long-term plans
Plans that extend beyond five years

Strategic Planning
Strategic plans
Apply broadly to the entire organization
Establish the organizations overall objectives
Seek to position the organization in terms of
its environment
Provide direction to drive an organizations
efforts to achieve its goals.
Serve as the basis for the tactical plans.
Cover extended periods of time
Are less specific in their details

Tactical Planning
Tactical plans (operational plans)
Apply to specific parts of the
organization.
Are derived from strategic objectives
Specify the details of how the overall
objectives are to be achieved.
Cover shorter periods of time
Must be updated continuously to meet
current challenges

Specific and Directional


Plans
Specific plans
Plans that have clearly defined
objectives and leave no room for
misinterpretation
What, when, where, how much, and by
whom (process-focus)

Directional plans
Flexible plans that set out general
guidelines
Go from here to there (outcome-focus)

Single-Use and Standing


Plans
Single-use plans
A plan that is used to meet the needs of
a particular or unique situation
Single-day sales advertisement

Standing plan
A plan that is ongoing and provides
guidance for repeatedly performed
actions in an organization
Customer satisfaction policy

Directional versus Specific Plans

The Strategic Management


Process

Analyze the Environment


Environmental scanning
Screening large amounts of information
to detect emerging trends and create a
set of scenarios

Competitive intelligence
Accurate information about competitors
that allows managers to anticipate
competitors actions rather than merely
react to them

SWOT: Identifying
Organizational Opportunities

Using SWOT
Analysis to
Formulate
Strategy

Evaluating
Organizational
Strengths
Evaluating
Organizational
Weakness
Evaluating an
Organizations
Opportunities
and Threats

Using SWOT
Analysis to
Formulate
Strategy
Organizational strengths
are skills and abilities enabling an
organization to conceive of and
implement strategies.

Evaluating
Organizational
Strengths

Common organizational strengths


are organizational capabilities possessed
by numerous competing factors.

Distinctive competencies
are useful for competitive advantage
and superior performance.

Imitation of distinctive competencies


is duplicating another organizations
distinctive competency

Evaluating
Organizational
Weakness
Evaluating an
Organizations
Opportunities
and Threats

Using SWOT
Analysis to
Formulate
Strategy
Sustained competitive advantage
occurs when a distinctive competence
cannot be easily duplicated.
is what remains after all attempts at
strategic imitations have ceased.

Strategic imitation is difficult when:


Distinctive competence is based on
unique historical circumstances.
Competitors do not understand the
nature or character of a organizations
competence.
The competence is based on a
complex phenomenon, such as
organizational culture.

Evaluating
Organizational
Strengths
Evaluating
Organizational
Weakness
Evaluating an
Organizations
Opportunities
and Threats

Using SWOT
Analysis to
Formulate
Strategy
Organizational weaknesses
Skills and capabilities that do not enable
an organization to choose and implement
strategies that support its mission.

Evaluating
Organizational
Strengths

Weaknesses can be overcome by:


investments to obtain the strengths
needed.
modification of the organizations mission
so it can be accomplished with the
current workforce.

Competitive disadvantage
A situation in which an organization fails
to implement
strategies being implemented by
competitors.

Evaluating
Organizational
Weakness
Evaluating an
Organizations
Opportunities
and Threats

Using SWOT
Analysis to
Formulate
Strategy

Organizational opportunities
Areas in the organizations
environment that may
generate high performance.

Organizational threats
Are areas in the organizations
environment that make it
difficult for the organization to
achieve high performance.

Evaluating
Organizational
Strengths
Evaluating
Organizational
Weakness
Evaluating an
Organizations
Opportunities
and Threats

A strength is something an
institution does well or a
characteristic that enhances its
competitiveness

Valuable competencies or know-how


Valuable physical assets
Valuable human assets
Valuable organizational assets
Valuable intangible assets
Important competitive capabilities
An attribute that places
organization in a position of
advantage
Alliances or cooperative with other
institutions

Identifying
Resource
Strengths
and
Competitive
Capabilities

A weakness is something
an institution lacks, does
poorly, or a condition
placing it at a disadvantage
Resource weaknesses
relate to
Deficiencies in know-how or
expertise or competencies
Lack of important physical,
organizational, or intangible
assets
Missing capabilities in key
areas

Identifying
Resource
Weaknesses
and
Competitive
Deficiencies

The opportunities most


relevant to an
institution are those
offering
The best prospects for
long-term growth
Competitive
advantage
Good match with its
benefit and
organizational resource
capabilities

Identifying an
Institution
Opportunities

Basic Elements of the Strategic Management Process

Enviroment
al Scanning

Strategi
Formulati
on

Strategi
Implementi
on

Evalutatio
n and
Control

The Strategic Management Process

External
Analysis
Oppotuniti
es
Threats

Identify the
organization
s current
mission,
goals, and
strategies

Formulate
Strategies

Internal
Analysis
Strenghts
Weakness

Implement
Strategies

Evaluate
Results

Questions that Guide Strategic Cho


WHAT CAN
WE DO?
(strengths and
weaknesses)

WHAT MIGHT
WE DO?
(external opportunities
and threats)
STRATEGY

WHAT DO WE
WANT TO DO?
(organizational and
individual values)

WHAT DO OTHERS
EXPECT US TO DO?
(stakeholder
expectancies)

Four Questions that Guide Strategic Choices

WHAT CAN
What new
WE DO?
capabilities
do we
(strengths and
wantweaknesses)
to develop?

WHAT MIGHT
How
do we
WE
DO?
create new
(external
opportunities
possibilities?
and
threats)
STRATEGY

What
doDO
we WE
WHAT
need
to TO DO?
WANT
learn to care
(organizational
and
about? values)
individual

WHAT
DO partner
OTHERS
How
do we
US TO DO?
toEXPECT
build shared
(stakeholder
expectancies?
expectancies)

Decision Making and the Planning Process

Purpose of
SWOT Analysis
Help decision makers share and compare ideas
Bring a clearer common purpose and
understanding of factors for success
Organize the important factors linked to
organizations success and failure.
Analyze issues that have led to failure in the past
Provide linearity to the decision making process
allowing complex ideas to be presented
systematically.

Internal-External Analyses
Internal
Analysi
s
Externa
l
Analysi
s

Examine the capabilities of the


organization by analyzing the
organization's strengths and
weaknesses.
Look at the main points in the
environmental analysis, and
identify those points that pose
opportunities for the
organization, and those that pose
threats or obstacles to
performance

Strengths: Operational
Definition
Something that we truly do

well,
Something that we excel at
versus the competition,
Something that we can build
on;
Something that truly
differentiates our organization,
A key metric that is improving,
etc.

Weakness: Operational
Definition

A real gap, a deficiency, a


problem, or a key metric that is
going bad;
Something were not doing very
well and that we should be doing
better;
Something thats dated that no
longer applieseven though it
used to;
Something important that we
really dont know or arent sure
about.

Opportunity: Operational
Definition

A favorable external
condition
Something (that we havent
acted on or taken advantage
yet) that could impact us
positively.
New things that can be done
to potentially improve the
organizationthat turn into
recommendations and
actions.

Threats: Operational
Definition
Something external to the

business that can potentially


impact us negatively:
competitors
changing conditions,
the overall politics, economy,
culture
government regulations, etc.

Part of the playing field that


cant be ignored.
Some internal threats, e.g.
hanging onto the status quo
when change is required

Strengths
Questions:
What
makes us
stand out
from
competitors
?

What
advantages
do we have
over other
organizatio
ns?

What are
the major
sources of
our
benefits?

Do we have
strong
image?

Do we have
a pool of
skilled
employees?

Is the
morale of
the
employees
high?

Have we
demonstrat
ed the
ability to
adapt and
change?

Are we able
to innovate?

Weakness
Questions:
What do
our society
complain
about?

What are
the least
effective for
the
organizatio
n?

In what
areas is the
organizatio
n not able
to recover
costs?

Which are
the weak
image?

Is the
regulations
effective?

Is the
organizatio
n not
focused?

Is the
organizatio
n able to
attract
talent?

What are
our biggest
expenditure
s?

Opportunity
Questions:
A favorable
external
condition

Something (that we havent acted on or


taken advantage yet) that could impact
us positively

New things that can be done to potentially improve the


organization-that turn into recommendations and
actions

Threats
Questions:
Are our
competitors
becoming
stronger?

Are there
emerging
trends that
amplify our
weaknesses
?

What
obstacles
do we face?

Is changing
technology
threatening
our
position?

Do we see
other
external
threats to
the
organizatio
n's
success?

Internally,
do we have
financial,
developme
nt, or other
problems?

What policies are local


and national lawmakers
backing? Do they affect
our organization?

Environmental Scanning
Employing the TOWS Matrix

SO strategies
WO strategies
ST strategies
potential threats
WT strategies
avoid threats

using strengths to take advantage of


opportunities
seizing opportunities to overcome
weaknesses
considering strengths as a way to avoid
defensive acts to minimize weaknesses and

TOWS Matrix
INTERNAL
FACTORS
(IFAS)

EXTERNAL
FACTORS
(EFAS)

Strengths (S)
Weaknesses (W)

Opportunities
(O)

Threats (T)

SO Strategies

WO Strategies

ST Strategies

WT Strategies

Source:Adapted from Long-Range Planning, April 1982, H. Weihrich, The TOWS MatrixA Tool for
Situational Analysis p. 60. Copyright 1982, with kind permission from H. Weihrich and Elsevier Science Ltd.
The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington OX5 1GB, UK.

TOWS Matrix
INTERNAL
FACTORS
(IFAS)

EXTERNAL
FACTORS
(EFAS)

(O)
List 5-10
External
Opportuniti
es

(T)
List 5-10
External
Threats

(S)
(W)
List 5-10
List 5-10
Internal strengthsInternal Weakness

SO Strategies
Use S to take
advantage of O

WO Strategies
Take advantage of O
by overcoming W

ST Strategies
Use S to avoid T

WT Strategies
Minimize W and avoid
T

TOWS Matrix
Strengths (S)

Weaknesses (W)

List 5 10 internal
strengths here

List 5 10 internal
weaknesses here

Opportunities (O)

SO Strategies

WO Strategies

List 5 10 external
opportunities here

Generate strategies here


that use strengths to take
advantage of opportunities

Generate strategies here


that take advantage of
opportunities by
overcoming weaknesses

Threats (T)

ST Strategies

WT Strategies

List 5 10 external
threats here

Generate strategies here


that use strengths to
avoid threats

Generate strategies here


that minimize weaknesses
and avoid threats

EXTERNAL
FACTORS
(EFAS)

INTERNAL
FACTORS
(IFAS)

Source:Adapted from Long-Range Planning, April 1982, H. Weihrich, The TOWS MatrixA Tool for
Situational Analysis p. 60. Copyright 1982, with kind permission from H. Weihrich and Elsevier Science Ltd.
The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington OX5 1GB, UK.

Environmental Scanning
Converting Analysis into Action
STRENGH
T

TURNIN
G
WEAKNE
SS

OPPORTU
NITIES

OPPORT
UNITIES

WEAKNE
SS

STRENGTHS

THREAT

TOWS
Matrix
From
Internal Analysis
(IFAS)

From External Analysis (EFAS)

Opportunities:
1.
2.
3.
Strengths:
1.
2.
3.

SO Strategies
Use strengths to
take advantage
of opportunities

Threats:
1.
2.
3.
ST Strategies
Use strengths to
avoid threats

WO Strategies
WT Strategies
Weaknesses: Take advantage of
Defensive strategies
1.
opportunities by
to minimize
2.
overcoming
weaknesses and
3.
weaknesses
avoid threats
Source: Weihrich

TOWS Matrix

GRAND STRATEGY
O

AGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE

COMPETITIVE DEFENSIVE

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