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Careers and

Career
Management

102

Introduction
Introduction (1
(1of
of 2)
2)

Career development is important for


companies to create and sustain a
continuous learning environment
The biggest challenge companies face
is how to balance advancing current
employees careers with simultaneously
attracting and acquiring employees with
new skills
The growing use of teams is influencing
the concept of careers

e.g., project careers

The
The Basics
Basics of
of Career
Career Management
Management

Career
The occupational positions a person has had
over many years.

Career management
The process for enabling employees to better
understand and develop their career skills
and interests, and to use these skills and
interests more effectively.

Career development
The lifelong series of activities that
contribute to a persons career exploration,
establishment, success, and fulfillment.

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104

The
The Basics
Basics of
of Career
Career Management
Management

Career planning
The deliberate process through which someone
becomes aware of personal skills, interests,
knowledge, motivations, and other
characteristics; and establishes action plans to
attain specific goals.

Careers today
Careers are no simple progressions of
employment in one or two firms with a single
profession.
Employees now want to exchange performance
for training, learning, and development that
keep them marketable.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

105

Introduction
Introduction (2
(2of
of 2)
2)

Changes in the concept of career affect:


employees motivation to attend training programs
the outcomes they expect to gain from attendance
their choice of programs
how and what they need to know

What
What Is
Is Career
Career Management?
Management?

Career management is the process


through which employees:
Become aware of their own interests, values,
strengths, and weaknesses
Obtain information about job opportunities
within the company
Identify career goals
Establish action plans to achieve career
goals

Why
Why Is
Is Career
Career Management
Management
Important?
Important? (1(1ofof2)2)

From the companys perspective,


perspective the
failure to motivate employees to plan
their careers can result in:
a shortage of employees to fill open positions
lower employee commitment
inappropriate use of monies allocated for
training and development programs

Why
Why Is
Is Career
Career Management
Management
Important?
Important?
(2
(2of
of 2)
2)

From the employees perspective,


perspective
lack of career management can result in:
frustration
feelings of not being valued by the company
being unable to find suitable employment
should a job change be necessary due to
mergers, acquisitions, restructuring, or
downsizing

Career
Career Management
Management and
and Career
Career
Motivation
Motivation (1(1of
of2)
2)

Career motivation refers to:


Employees energy to invest in their careers
Their awareness of the direction they want
their careers to take
The ability to maintain energy and direction
despite barriers they may encounter

Career motivation has three aspects:


Career resilience
Career insight
Career identity

Career
Career Management
Management and
and Career
Career
Motivation
Motivation (2(2of
of2)
2)

Career resilience the extent to which


employees are able to cope with
problems that affect their work
Career insight involves:
how much employees know about their
interests, skill strengths, and weaknesses
the awareness of how these perceptions
relate to their career goals

Career identity the degree to which


employees define their personal values
according to their work

The
The Value
Value of
of Career
Career Motivation
Motivation
Components of Career Motivation
Career Resilience

Career Insight

Career Identity

Company Value

Innovation
Employees adapting to
unexpected changes
Commitment to company
Employee
Pride inValue
work
Be aware of skill strengths and
weaknesses
Participate in learning activities
Cope with less than ideal working
conditions
Avoid skill obsolescence

What
What Is
Is A
ACareer?
Career?

Traditional Career
Sequence of positions held within an
occupation
Context of mobility is within an organization
Characteristic of the employee

Protean Career
Frequently changing based on changes in the
person and changes in the work environment
Employees take major responsibility for
managing their careers
Based on self-direction with the goal of
psychological success in ones work

Comparison
Comparison of
of Traditional
Traditional Career
Career
and
and Protean
Protean Career:
Career:

Dimension

Traditional Career

Protean Career

Goal

Promotions
Salary increase

Psychological success

Psychological contract

Security for commitment

Employability for flexibility

Mobility

Vertical

Lateral

Responsibility for
Management

Company

Employee

Pattern

Linear and expert

Spiral and transitory

Expertise

Know how

Learn how

Development

Heavy reliance on formal


training

Greater reliance on relationships


and job experiences

Traditional
Traditional Versus
Versus Career
Career Development
Development Focus
Focus

Source: Adapted from Fred L. Otte and Peggy G. Hutcheson, Helping Employees
Manage Careers (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. 10.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Table 101
101
1015

Different
Different generations
generations of
of employees
employees
have
have different
different career
career needs
needs and
and
interests:
interests:
Millennium
(0 to early 20s)

Generation X
(mid-20s to
early 40s)

Baby Boomers
(mid-40s to
mid-50s)

Traditionalists
(late 50s to
early 80s)

A
AModel
Model of
of Career
Career Development
Development
Career development is the process by
which employees progress through a
series of stages
Each stage is characterized by a
different set of developmental tasks,
activities, and relationships
There are four career stages:

Exploration
Establishment
Maintenance
Disengagement

Organizational
Organizationaland
andIndividual
Individual
Career
Career Planning
Planning Perspectives
Perspectives

Figure 101
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1018

How
How People
People Choose
Choose Careers
Careers

Interests
Interests

Social
Social
Background
Background

Career
Career
Choice
Choice

Self-Image
Self-Image

Personality
Personality

2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved.

1019

General
GeneralCareer
Career Periods
Periods

Figure 103
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1020

Special
Special Career
Career Issues
Issues for
for
Organizations
Organizations and
and Employees
Employees
Career Plateaus
Employees who are stuck at a career level
and lack opportunities for upward mobility.

Technical and Professional Workers


Dual-career ladders provide advancement
pathways for specialists and technical
employees.

Dual-Career Couples
Problems occur when one partner is
promoted or transferred, causing the other
partner to have to relocate.

2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved.

1021

The
ThePortable
PortableCareer
CareerPath
Path

Figure 104
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1022

Developing
Developing Human
Human Resources
Resources

Development
Efforts to improve employees ability to
handle a variety of a variety of assignments.

Developing Needs Analyses


Assessment Centers
A collection of instruments and exercises designed to
diagnose individuals development needs.
Intent is to identify management potential in
participants.

2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved.

1023

Development
Development vs.
vs.Training
Training

Figure 106
2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved.

1024

The
TheHR
HR
Development
Development
Process
Processin
inan
an
Organization
Organization

Figure 107
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Other
Other Development
Development Issues
Issues

Psychological Testing
Performance Appraisals
Serve as a source of development information
Results can be difficult to interpret.

Succession Planning
The process of identifying a
longer-term plan for the orderly
replacement of key employees.

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Succession
SuccessionPlanning
PlanningProcess
Process

Figure 108
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Choosing
Choosing aa Development
Development Approach
Approach
Individual
Individual
Coaching
Coaching
Committee
Committee
Assignment/
Assignment/
Meetings
Meetings

Learning
Learning
Organization
Organization

Corporate
Corporate
Universities
UniversitiesCareer
Career
Development
Development

Job-Site
Job-Site
Methods
Methods

On-line
On-line
Development
Development

2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved.

Job
Job
Rotation
Rotation

Assistant
Assistantto
to
Positions
Positions

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Choosing
Choosing aa Development
Development Approach
Approach (contd)
(contd)
Classroom
ClassroomCourses
Courses
and
andDegrees
Degrees

Human
HumanRelations
Relations
Training
Training

Off-Site
Off-Site
Methods
Methods
Simulations
Simulations
(Business
(BusinessGames)
Games)

Outdoor
OutdoorTraining
Training
Sabbaticals
Sabbaticalsand
and
Leaves
Leavesof
of Absence
Absence

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Advantages
Advantagesand
andDisadvantages
Disadvantagesof
ofMajor
Major
Development
DevelopmentApproaches
Approaches

Figure 1010a
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Advantages
Advantagesand
andDisadvantages
Disadvantagesof
ofMajor
Major
Development
DevelopmentApproaches
Approaches

Figure 1010b
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Managerial
ManagerialLessons
Lessonsand
and Job
Job Experience
Experience

Figure 1011
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Management
Management Development
Development
Managerial
Managerial
Modeling
Modeling

Management
Management
Coaching
Coaching

Mentoring
Mentoring

Executive
Executive
Education
Education
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Stages
Stagesin
inMentoring
MentoringRelationships
Relationships

Figure 1012
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A
A Model
Model of
of Career
Career Development
Development
(continued)
(continued)

Exploration

Establishment

Maintenance

Disengagement

Developmental
tasks

Identify interests,
skills, fit between
self and work

Advancement,
Hold on to
growth, security, accomplishments,
develop life style update skills

Retirement
planning,
change balance
between work
and non-work

Activities

Helping
Learning
Following
directions

Making
independent
contributions

Training
Sponsoring
Policy making

Phasing out of
work

Relationships
to other
employees

Apprentice

Colleague

Mentor

Sponsor

Typical age

Less than 30

30 45

45 60

61+

Years on job

Less than 2 years

2 10 years

More than 10
years

More than 10
years

The
The career
career management
management process:
process:

SelfAssessment

Reality
Check

Goal Setting

Action
Planning

Components
Components of
of the
the Career
Career Management
Management
Process:
Process: (1(1of
of2)
2)

Self-Assessment
Use of information by employees to
determine their career interests, values,
aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies
Often involves psychological tests

Reality Check
Information employees receive about how
the company evaluates their skills and
knowledge and where they fit into company
plans

Components
Components of
of the
the Career
Career Management
Management
Process:
Process: (2(2of
of2)
2)

Goal Setting
The process of employees developing shortand long-term career objectives
Usually discussed with the manager and
written into a development plan

Action Planning
Employees determining how they will
achieve their short- and long-term career
goals

Design
Design factors
factors of
of Effective
Effective Career
Career
Management
Management Systems:
Systems: (1(1ofof2)2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

System is positioned as a response to a business need


or supports a business strategy
Employees and managers participate in development
of the system
Employees are encouraged to take active roles in
career management
Evaluation is ongoing and used to improve the system
Business units can customize the system for their own
purposes

Design
Design factors
factors of
of Effective
Effective Career
Career
Management
Management Systems:
Systems: (2(2ofof2)2)
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.

Employees need access to career information sources


Senior management supports the career system
Career management is linked to other human resource
practices such as training, recruiting systems, and
performance management
System creates a large, diverse talent pool
Information about career plans and talent is accessible
to all managers

Elements
Elements of
of Career
Career Management
Management
Websites
Websites
User Access

Website Features

Self-assessment tools

Jobs database

Training resources

Employee profile database

Job data

Matching engine

Salary information

Tools and services Assessment,


online

Career management advice

Training programs, development


resources

Shared
Shared Responsibility:
Responsibility:
Roles
Roles in
in Career
Career Management
Management
Employees

Manager

HR Manager

Company

Employees
Employees Role
Role in
in Career
Career
Management
Management
Take the initiative to ask for feedback from
managers and peers regarding their skill
strengths and weaknesses
Identify their stage of career development
and development needs
Seek challenges by gaining exposure to a
range of learning opportunities
Interact with employees from different
work groups inside and outside the
company
Create visibility through good performance

Managers
Managers Role
Role in
in Career
Career Management
Management
Roles

Responsibilities

Coach

Probe problems, interests, values, needs


Listen
Clarify concerns
Define concerns

Appraiser

Give feedback
Clarify company standards
Clarify job responsibilities
Clarify company needs

Advisor

Generate options, experiences, and relationships


Assist in goal setting
Provide recommendations

Referral agent

Link to career management resources


Follow up on career management plan

HR
HR Managers
Managers Role
Role in
in Career
Career
Management
Management
Provide information or advice about
training and development opportunities
Provide specialized services such as
testing to determine employees values,
interests, and skills
Help prepare employees for job searches
Offer counseling on career-related
problems

Companys
Companys Role
Role in
in Career
Career
Management
Management

Companies are responsible for providing


employees with the resources needed to
be successful in career planning:
Career workshops
Information on career and job opportunities
Career planning workbooks
Career counseling
Career paths

Evaluating
Evaluating Career
Career Management
Management
Systems
Systems
Career management systems need to be
evaluated to ensure that they are meeting
the needs of employees and the business
Two types of outcomes can be used to
evaluate:

Reactions of the customers (employees and


managers) who use the career management
system
Results of the career management system

Evaluation of a career management system


should be based on its objectives

Employee
Employee
Career
Career
Development
Development
Plan
Plan

Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext.com Copyright HRnext.com, 2003.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 101
101
1048

The Individual
Accept responsibility for your own career.
Assess your interests, skills, and values.
Seek out career information and resources.
Establish goals and career plans.
Utilize development opportunities.
Talk with your manager about your career.
Follow through on realistic career plans.

The Manager
Provide timely performance feedback.
Provide developmental assignments and support.
Participate in career development discussions.
Support employee development plans.

Roles
Roles in
in Career
Career
Development
Development

The Organization
Communicate mission, policies, and procedures.
Provide training and development opportunities.
Provide career information and career programs.
Offer a variety of career options.

Source: Fred L. Otte and Peggy G. Hutcheson, Helping


Employees Manage Careers (Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1992), p. 56.

Table 102
102
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

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Sample
SampleAgenda
Agenda
Two-Day
Two-Day
Career
Career
Planning
Planning
Workshop
Workshop

Source: Fred L. Otte and Peggy Hutcheson, Helping Employees


Manage Careers (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992),
pp. 2223. In addition to career development training and followup support, First USA Bank has also outfitted special career
development facilities at its work sites that employees can use on
company time. These contain materials such as career assessment
and planning tools.

Figure 102
102
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

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Sample
Sample
Performan
Performan
ce
ceReview
Review
Developm
Developm
ent
entPlan
Plan

Source: Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 103
103
1051

Example
Example of
of Some
Some Occupations
Occupations that
that May
May
Typify
Typify Each
Each Occupational
Occupational Theme
Theme

Figure 10A2
10A2
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1052

Example
Example of
of Some
Some Occupations
Occupations that
that May
May
Typify
Typify Each
Each Occupational
Occupational Theme
Theme

Source: James Waldroop and Timothy Butler, " Finding the Job You Should Want,
Want, Fortune,
Fortune, March 2, 1998, p. 211.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 10A3
10A3
1053

The
The End
End
Questions
Questions

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