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Prepared by Mr. N.RAMESH KUMAR
Unit I : Innovation and Innovation Management: The evolution of innovation - levels of innovation -myths of innovation - innovation models categories of innovation – innovation management - main requirements - basic practices of innovation management- barriers to innovation in an organization -innovation in the future different ways to innovative - principle of good innovation
Unit II : Innovation Process: building the innovation process - innovation diffusion – the innovation: decision process- five stages of the diffusion process - the new learning about innovation Unit III : Innovation culture: introduction - innovation system - community and social capital -innovation culture - building innovation culture- innovation climate
Unit IV: Creativity and Innovation: Introduction - defining creativity the relation between creativity and innovation - different ways of thinking - qualities of a creative person the difference between creativity and innovation — creativity, problem solving: guidelines Unit V: Innovators and Entrepreneurs: Social and cultural context of entrepreneurs - processes encouraging and discouraging entrepreneurship - Ethical social and political issues of innovation -Innovation as a personality, innovative process and entrepreneurship
1. Jeffrey A. Timmons and Stephen Spinelli, "New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for he 21st Century," McGraw-Hill, 2004. 2. Malcolm Gladwell, "The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make A Big Difference," title, brown February 2000 3.Peter F.Drucker, INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP PRACTICE AND PRINCIPLES , West Press Limited 4. Keith Herndon, ENTREPRENEURS AND INNOVATION: CREATING VALUE WITH EMERGING TECHOLOGIES, Innovations Publishing, Atlanda, Georgia
5. Clayton M. Christensen and Michael E. Raynor, "The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth," Harvard Business School Press, September 2003 6. Geoffrey A. Moore, "Crossing the Chasm," Harper Business, August 2002 7. William A. Sahlman and Howard H. Stevenson, ENTREPRENEURIAL VENTURE, Harvard Business School Publications, 1992.
Introduction to innovation
What is innovation?
Innovation is the process and outcome of creating something new, which is also of value. Innovation involves the whole process from opportunity identification, ideation or invention to development, prototyping, production marketing and sales, while entrepreneurship only needs to involve commercialization (Schumpeter).
What is innovation?
Today it is said to involve the capacity to quickly adapt by adopting new innovations (products, processes, strategies, organization, etc) Also, traditionally the focus has been on new products or processes, but recently new business models have come into focus, i.e. the way a firm delivers value and secures profits.
What is innovation?
Schumpeter argued that innovation comes about through new combinations made by an entrepreneur, resulting in a new product, a new process, opening of new market, new way of organizing the business new sources of supply
Dimensions of innovation
There are several types of innovation Process, product/service, strategy, which can vary in degree of newness: Incremental to radical, and impact: continuous to discontinuous
Drivers for innovation
to reduce costs, increase efficiency, do more with less, etc Increased competition Shorter product life cycles Value migration Stricter regulation Industry and community needs for sustainable development
Increased demend for accountability Demographic, social and maket changes Rising customer expectations regarding
service and quality Changing economy Greater availability of potentially useful technologies coupled with a need to exceed the competition in these technologies
What is innovation?
Gary Hamel argued that today’s market place is hostile to incumbents, who now needs to conduct radical business innovation:
Radically reconceiving products and services, not just developing new products and services Redefining market space Redrawing industry boundaries
New conditions for innovation
Small start-up entrepreneurs increasingly depend on large firms:
as suppliers or customers for venture finance, for exit opportunites, for knowledge (production, markets and R&D) and for opening new markets.
Large firms increasingly depend on small start-ups
New conditions for innovation contd...
for NPD, as suppliers of new knowledge (which they cannot develop themselves), or organizational renewal, for experimentation with busienss models, for opening new markets, etc
New developments in innovation raises new issues and problems Greater emphasis on commercializing
scientific discoveries, particularly in IT and the bio-sciences Speed and potential value of scientific progress leads to emphasis on solid and welldesigned portfolios of research projects Universites as active drivers of innovation: Academic entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial university University-industry partnerships Increased search for radical innovation and top-line growth.
LEVELS OF INNOVATION
Managers and policy makers are increasingly recognizing that the 'linear model' of innovation, i.e. an orderly progression from R&D to development to market exploitation, is over simplistic. In today's complex and changing business environment Successful innovation is much more iterative and interactive, involving many people and processes. In short, commercial success depends on effective Innovation networks.
Effective innovation networks bring the following benefits: . Faster development of new products and services; . Better optimization of R&D investment; . Closer alignment with market needs; . More successful product introductions; . Better anticipation of customer needs; and . Competitor differentiation.
Levels of innovation
Level 1 -Technology transfer Discrete movement of something from one place to another technology push or demand pull. Something moves from lab to production, from university to industry. Most typically, information(e.g. reports) or knowledge 'embedded' in prototype product.
Level 1 -Technology transfer
Discrete movement of something from one place to another - technology push or demand pull. Something moves from lab to production, from university to industry. Most typically, information (e.g. reports) or knowledge 'embedded' in proto type product.
Level 2 -Knowledge exchange
Recognizes the role of people as a transfer medium and of knowledge as information in a context. Ideas flow between researchers and users. Each informs the other. More of a two-way dialogue, though, since it often starts late in the innovation cycle, much knowledge exchange has a one-way emphasis
Level 3- Knowledge collaboration
Ideas are developed jointly. There is less certainty at the outset of 'what' will be developed. People from multiple disciplines work together to solve a problem, as in concurrent engineering processes. New ideas and insight are gained as a result of the interaction.
Level 4 - Knowledge innovation systems
There is too much at stake to be left to serendipity. Management issues crone to the fore. A more systematic and systemic approach is adopted. Social-technical and business systems are aligned; priorities are continually reviewed in light of the progress of the innovation and the developments in the marketplace. The innovation system is a learning system.
Level 5 -Knowledge innovation networks
Innovation is dynamic. Different strategic business partners are needed as the innovation moves into business development. Several strategic business networks (SBNs) Intertwine, each with a different focus and purpose, though with many common partners. Networks ebb and flow. 'Knowledge flow‘ becomes the source of collaborative advantage.
Principles Of Good Innovation
Innovation starts when people convert problems to ideas.
New ideas are born through questions, problems and obstacles. The process of innovation is indebted to the trouble that comes about when we are surrounded by that which is not solved, not smooth and not simple. Therefore, in order for the innovation process to flourish, it needs a climate that encourages inquiry and welcomes problems.
Innovation needs a system.
All organizations have innovation systems. Some are formal, designed by the leadership, and some are informal, taking place outside established channels. Informal channels are untidy and inefficient, yet innovation is always associated with them.
Passion is the fuel, and pain is the hidden ingredient. Ideas do not propel themselves; passion makes them go. Passion, in addition to talent and skill, is a valuable company asset. Passion is what transforms other resources into profits, but it never shows up on a balance sheet. Unfortunately, there seems to be some universal law that says when pursuing a passion or following a dream, pain is part of the process. Innovation leaders need to take the pain with the passion and learn to manage both effectively.
Co-locating drives effective exchange.
Co-location refers to physical proximity between people. It is a key for building the trust that is essential to the innovation process. It also increases the possibility for greater exchange of information, cross-fertilization of ideas, stimulation of creative thinking in one another and critique of ideas during their formative stage.
Differences should be leveraged.
The differences that normally divide people — such as language, culture, race, gender and thinking and problem solving styles — can be a boon to innovation. When differences are used constructively and people move beyond fear, suspicion, mistrust and prejudice, differences can be leveraged to enhance and sustain the innovation process.
Failure Of Innovation
Innovations that fail are often potentially good ideas but have been rejected or postponed due to budgetary constraints, lack of skills or poor fit with current goals. Failures should be identified and screened out as early in the process as possible. Early screening avoids unsuitable ideas devouring scarce resources that are needed to progress more beneficial ones. Organizations can learn how to avoid failure when it is openly discussed and debated. The lessons learned from failure often reside longer in the organisational consciousness than lessons learned from success. While learning is important, high failure rates throughout the innovation process are wasteful and a threat to the organisation's future.
The causes of failure have been widely researched and can vary considerably. Some causes will be external to the organisation and outside its influence of control Poor Leadership Poor Organization Poor Communication Poor Empowerment Poor Knowledge Management
Common causes of failure within the innovation process in most organisations can be distilled into five types:
Poor goal definition Poor alignment of actions to goals Poor participation in teams Poor monitoring of results Poor communication and access to information
Myths of innovation
Myths of Innovation
Myth 1 – Always keep your eye on the ball. “It’s really hard to notice other things if you keep your eye on the ball. You need to focus to get your work done. But you might miss things that come out of left field. It’s really hard to balance that.” Myth 2 – Failure is not an option. “We can be paralyzed by fear as well. Fear of failure is probably the biggest impediment to innovation.” Message to newsrooms: “The culture needs to embrace failure and trying.”
Myth 3 – Everyone loves an innovator. “They’re rebels, they’re difficult to deal with sometimes. They’re not always fun to have around.” Message to newspaper editors: “It’s important that you as a leader embrace the irritant.” Myth 4 – “Innovators are problem solvers” Actually, innovators ask “why?” In the music business, people might ask “How do we sell more CDs?” The innovator might ask, “how do we provide the best music listening experience?” (and Napster did it.).
Myth 5 – Knowledge is Power. Organizations may know too much. Funny example: A remote with 52 buttons on it. The designer knew how to use every one and thought you might want too as well. Similarly, sometimes the customer knows too much – think photographers who said the would never want a digital camera and fast forward. Myth 6 – Innovation can be predicted. Measurement and management may spell death of innovation. “When you try to manage it, you actually kill it.”.
Myth 7 – First place always wins. “It’s not the person who comes up with the idea first. It’s the one who delivers the product, delivers the experience that the market want it. Innovation build on the successes and failures of the innovators before.” Example: iTunes didn’t invent mp3
Incremental Innovation – Doing more of the same things you have been doing with somewhat better results. Additive Innovation – More fully exploiting already existing resources, such as product lines extensions, and can achieve good results. These opportunities should rarely be treated as high priority efforts. The risks should be small – and they should not take resources away from complementary or breakthrough opportunities. Complementary Innovation – Offers something new and changes the structure of the business. Breakthrough Innovation (Radical Innovation) – Changes the fundamentals of the business, creating a new industry and new avenues for extensive wealth creation.
The Four Categories of Innovation
Future of Innovation
Many changes are taking place in the way we discover new treatments and cures for disease. Cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and other deadly conditions affect millions of Americans. New medicines have led to improved treatments of certain forms of breast cancer, hypertension, and AIDS, while other drugs have slowed the decline of degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease or arthritis. As impressive as advances in biopharmaceuticals have been, our work is far from over. Millions of Americans with serious diseases and conditions, and a health care system struggling with rising costs and gaps in quality, can benefit from new pharmaceutical discoveries. Every day, nearly 80,000 researchers go to work seeking tomorrow's medical miracles. Explore this section to learn about the tools they are now using to better understand the mechanisms of disease, track molecular biomarkers that signal the emergence of disease or its response to treatment, and design drugs that are tailored to be safe and effective for individuals based on a personalized approach.
New Medicines in Development Find out what's on the horizon of pharmaceutical innovation. New medicines in the pipeline are targeting entirely new pathways of disease. Search the database by disease, drug name or company. Next Wave of InnovationThe drug discovery toolbox has become quite sophisticated in recent years. Automation, robotics, and miniaturization are enabling millions of candidate drugs to be tested within a matter of weeks; nanotechnology promises to enhance the ability to detect, deliver and treat disease with unprecedented precision; and the tools of genomics and proteomics are revealing the mechanisms of disease, and the molecular markers used to track its emergence and treatment. See how pharmaceutical innovation is expanding the frontiers of science. Future of Health Care Providing high-quality, affordable health care for a growing and aging population is a daunting challenge. What role will pharmaceutical discovery play in finding new solutions, and what dynamics will shape our health care system as a whole?
Challenges in Innovation Management
Challenges in Innovation Management
Innovation represents the core renewal process in any organization. If an organization want to survive in today's turbulent (unstable) environment he should have to prepare for renewing the offerings and its delivery process to their stakeholders. Innovation gives two distressing (difficult) conclusions- first, that most innovations which destroy the existing order originate from newcomers and outsiders to a particular industry, and second, that few of the original players survive such transformations. So, here the question is not to innovate but how to implement the innovation successfully. Managing innovation becomes one of the key strategic dimensions for organization of all the size and from all the sectors.
The word innovation originally comes from Latin word 'innovare' that means "to make something new". The most exhaustive definition is presented by the innovation unit of the U.K. department of trade and industry who see it simply as 'the successful exploitation of new ideas".
Every organization have to manage four different phases in the process of turning ideas into successful reality; scanning the environment, strategic selection of Key, Selecting most feasible and profitable option, implementing the innovation to ensure success from idea generation to final launch of the product. Innovation management is about learning to find the most appropriate solution to the problem of consistently managing this process, and doing so in the ways best suited to the particular circumstances in which the organization finds itself. There is not a single best way to do this as there are some challenges which are involved in innovation management. There will always be a need to develop new approaches to meet new and emerging challenges.
Challenge 1: why change? As we know that we are living in the doubtful world where the only certainty is that simply sitting also carries high risk. Change is necessary for every organization if they are willing to stay in the market for long term. Agile firms constantly re-invent themselves to solve the puzzle posed by the threat and opportunities in their environment by adopting new technology and other novel way to do the things. It may involve reconfiguring products, processes or markets. And in each case it involves learning and unlearning and it requires strategic direction to focus this process.
Challenge 2: what to change? Even if firms can recognize and accept the need for continuous innovation they may find difficulties in framing an appropriate innovation agenda. Different agenda may be in the area of product, process, market positioning and underlying business model. After selecting a feasible agenda attempt is made for continuous and radical improvement to ensure success.
Challenge3: understanding innovation
There is often considerable confusion between 'invention' and 'innovation'. Invention describes about the moment of creative insight which first opens up a new possibility as Edison is said that "it is 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration!". There are lots of examples in the history that distinguish invention from innovation. As, Spengler invented the vacuum sweeper but Hoover innovate it. Howe developed the first sewing machine but singer took from invention to widespread acceptance means he innovates the product at large. Sometime it is thought that innovation is all about science and technology creating new opportunities. Sometime it is also viewed that 'necessity is the mother of invention' may sound persuasive- but a totally marketing led approach to innovation may miss some important tricks.
Challenge4: building an innovation culture Building an innovative culture is not a small task and it requires heavy effort from the organization. Sometime copying may simply make the problem worse. Research suggests that the task of managing innovation is all about creating firm specific routines - repeated, reinforced patterns of behavior - which define its particular approach to the problem. 'Routine' in this sense does not mean robotic but it does mean an established pattern-'the way we do things around here' which represents the approach a particular organization takes to dealing with the innovation challenge
Challenge 5: continuous learning
Continuous learning is necessary for the development of every organization and for this they have to develop some 'good practice' model. In the good practice, we know how an organization can create and deliver a stream of new products and services. There are some key features of emerging 'good practice' model- systematic process for progressing new products, early involvement of all relevant functions, overlapping/parallel working, appropriate project management structures, cross-functional team working, advanced support tools, learning and continuous improvement. If we consider about the trouble with innovation, as we have already seen, is that it is not a static problem to which we might try and find a particular solution, which fits. Instead, it is a mutating and shifting set of puzzles that shift and change over a period of time.
Challenge 6: high involvement innovation
We know that traditionally innovation has been the area of the specialist who often works apart from the mainstream (normal) of the organization's operations. Innovation is fundamentally about creative problem-solving and as environments become more turbulent and uncertain, so the requirement for this capability increases. With uncertain markets, rapidly changing technological threat and opportunities, increasing regulatory pressures, shifting customer and competitive requirements, and a host of other variables to deal with the likelihood of getting the 'right' innovation response is low. Organization need to increase their innovative capacity, and one powerful mechanism for doing so is to extend participation in the process to a much wider population.
Challenge7: dealing with discontinuity
Much innovation can be seen as a 'steady (stable) state' activity. Of course it is about change, but it takes place within a framework which is relatively consistent. Most change happens as incremental developments of what is already there-'doing what we do better'.
Challenge8: managing connections
Inter-organizational networking is becoming an issue of considerable interest amongst researchers, policymakers and practitioners. In part this reflects the perception of advantages of networking over traditional transactional models of organization, in which there is often a trade-off between modes of interaction and in part it acknowledges the impact of technological and market changes which have blurred the boundaries between enterprises and opened up the arena in which new forms might emerge. 'virtual enterprises', 'boundaryless organizations' and 'networked companies' are typical examples of the thinking and experimentation which is going on to try and establish different approaches to the problem of inter-organizational relationships.
From all the above discussion we can say that if once the firm has mastered the basic 'skills' of innovation, it needs to look at how well it can involve the full range of its staff, how well it can manage to operate in networks rather than on its own, how well it can handle continuous and discontinuous changes, etc. this makes the management task not simply one of building and sustaining routines for innovation but also-and most importantly- one of creating the underlying learning routines, which enable the organization to do so.
Unit II :
Innovation Process: building the innovation process innovation diffusion – the innovation: decision processfive stages of the diffusion process - the new learning about innovation
What is an Innovation Process?
Any process of innovation must define and describe the actions and outcomes that result from the application of specific methods and tools (and the reasons behind these methods and tools). The actions of people following the process take place over time and, therefore, have a time linear nature that, if described strictly by a linear sequence of activities and events, belies one of the most important aspects of the innovation process itself - it is not linear!
The process of innovation relies on the nonlinear methods of iteration and abstraction. Iteration because that is how we learn things and obtain new knowledge, by going back, refining and maturing what we know to gain insight and understanding of the things we see and learn. Abstraction because that is how we synthesize knowledge, see patterns and make connections to new things. Both of these activities, iteration and abstraction, are inherently non-linear, yet must necessarily take place over time as a series of concrete actions by people using a process for innovation.
THE INNOVATION PROCESS CYCLE
The cycle starts with a problem or goal which needs to be formulated into an innovation challenge. Once this is done, the challenge is presented to the problem solving group. This may be done in the form of a brainstorming event, ideas campaign or other activity. The group problem solving group may be a team, all employees in the firm, the public or any other group of people.
In order to maximize the creative potential of the problem solving group, the idea generation activity should be collaborative in nature. This can be accomplished in many ways. Idea management and innovation process management software often provides on-line collaboration tools, while facilitators of brainstorming and other ideation events should promote collaborative idea development.
Combination Because an innovation process cycle starts with a challenge, ideas tend to be interrelated and many are complementary. Hence, before going further, it is best to combine such complementary ideas into larger, more sophisticated ideas so that they can be handled as a single package. This makes the next steps in the cycle more efficient. Scientific Peer Review Evaluation Here is where a lot of innovation initiatives break down: choosing the best ideas. Many poorly thought out approaches use voting, which is a good way to identify the most popular idea, but an appallingly ineffective method for identifying the most potentially innovative idea. I have also seen organisations put a great deal of effort into idea generation, leaving the final decision to a manager who basically picks out her favourite idea. Assuming the manager has suitable business expertise, such an approach is better than voting – as it is based on expertise rather than popularity – but it is typically far from perfect.
Testing and Development Ideas identified as being potential innovations are now ready to be tested and developed. Here is where typical business tools come in useful. A business case is a useful means of hypothetically implementing an innovative idea and projecting the potential results. Of course it is not perfect, but it indicates possible issues in the implementation of the idea, as well as benefits that may not have been obvious to the original idea developers. Implementation Ideas that make it through testing and development are ready to be implemented. Unless the idea is a radical change from your usual activities, you don't need me to tell you how to do this!
Review Once ideas have been implemented, they need to be reviewed, probably against an ongoing series of milestones. If an implementation does not achieve a milestone, it needs to modified or killed. Moreover, even the most spectacularly effective and profitable breakthrough innovations need to be improved on a regular basis. New Needs and Inspiration Hence, reviewing the implementation of new ideas should indicate new needs which can be transformed into challenges which, in turn, start a new innovation process cycle. Likewise, implementations can inspire new corporate goals. Again, these can be turned into new challenges and new cycles.
INTEGRATED INNOVATION PROCESS MANAGEMENT
INTEGRATED INNOVATION PROCESS MANAGEMENT An innovative company, however, should not have a single innovation process cycle in operation. Rather it should have many of them! Large cycles are suitable for enterprise-wide innovation. Meanwhile, business units can run somewhat smaller innovation process cycles in order to manage their own ideas (although it should be noted, collaborative groups need not be limited to employees of that business unit). Teams, departments and any other group can also run their own innovation process cycles.
Diffusion (distribution) of Innovations
Diffusion of Innovations is a theory of how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures. The concept was first studied by the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1890) and by German and Austrian anthropologists such as Friedrich Ratzel or Leo Frobenius.
The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span across multiple disciplines. Rogers identifies six main traditions that impacted diffusion research: anthropology, early sociology, rural sociology, education, industrial, and medical sociology. The diffusion of innovation theory has been largely influenced by the work of rural sociologists. In the book Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers synthesizes research from over 508 diffusion studies and produces a theory for the adoption of innovations among individuals and organization.
Diffusion of Innovations ( Rogers 1962). He defines diffusion as "the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system."
The diffusion of innovations according to Rogers. With successive groups of consumers adopting the new technology (shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach the
Elements of diffusion of innovations
The key elements in diffusion research are: The innovation, Types of communication channels, Time or rate of adoption, and The social system which frames the innovation decision process.
Types of innovationdecisions
There are three types of innovation-decisions within diffusion of innovations. An individual or an organization/social system bases the type of decision on whether an innovation is adopted/rejected. The three types of innovationdecisions are: Optional innovation-decisions, collective innovation-decisions, authority innovation-decisions
Optional Innovation-Decision This decision is made by an individual who is in some way distinguished from others in a social system. Collective Innovation-Decision This decision is made collectively by all individuals of a social system. Authority Innovation-Decision This decision is made for the entire social system by few individuals in positions of influence or power.
The adoption process
Diffusion of an innovation occurs through a five–step process. This process is a type of decision-making. It occurs through a series of communication channels over a period of time among the members of a similar social system. Ryan & Gross first indicated the identification of adoption as a process in 1943 (Rogers 1962, p. 79).
Rogers categorizes the five stages (steps) as: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. It should be noted that an individual might reject an innovation at anytime during or after the adoption process. In later editions of the Diffusion of Innovations Rogers changes the terminology of the five stages to: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. However the descriptions of the categories have remained similar throughout the editions.
Five Stages Of The Adoption Process
Knowledge In this stage the individual is first exposed to an innovation but lacks information about the innovation. It should be noted that during this stage of the process the individual has not been inspired to find more information about the innovation. Persuasion In this stage the individual is interested in the innovation and actively seeks information/detail about the innovation.
Decision In this stage the individual takes the concept of the innovation and weighs the advantages/disadvantages of using the innovation and decides whether to adopt or reject the innovation. Due to the individualistic nature of this stage Rogers notes that it is the most difficult stage to acquire empirical evidence (Rogers 1964, p. 83). Implementation In this stage the individual employs the innovation to a varying degree depending on the situation. During this stage the individual determines the usefulness of the innovation and may search for further information about it. Confirmation Although the name of this stage may be misleading, in this stage the individual finalizes their decision to continue using the innovation and may use the innovation to its fullest potential.
The New Learning About Innovation
Our knowledge of innovation at the national, industry and individual company level has increased substantially over the past 20 years. Research into innovation has placed particular emphasis on its multi-actor nature. This chapter examines the interplay of different institutions and firms and its consequences for innovation at a macro level, and also examines recent analysis of innovation at the level of the firm.
Research has shown the importance of structural factors, such as the number and size of firms in an industry, competitiveness and innovation Others highlight the importance of institutional factors influencing ‘national systems of innovation’ At the same time, increasingly sophisticated models of the innovation process within the firm are being developed. These build upon earlier models by emphasizing: inter-functional and inter-organizational structures, Iterative (translation) activities, strategic decision-making, and enhanced use of electronic media. Furthermore, greater attention is being paid to ‘pre innovation’- and the sources of creativity, on the one hand and ‘post- innovation’ or ‘re-innovation’.
Carlsson’s research into four technology systems in Sweden–factory automation, electronics and computers, pharmaceuticals (especially biotechnology) and powder technology - led to the identification of ten dimensions of technology systems: present development phase; future potential; buyer competence; buyer-supplier collaboration; supplier competence; industrial R&D; academic infrastructure; government policy; bridging institutions; holes/weaknesses; compensating mechanisms.
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