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W IR ELESS LO C A L A R EA

N ETW O R K & W I-FI

Rona Mae Babaran


Marianne Balce
Jasmine Lalanto
Celestian Pepito
Hajjelle Rillera

W hat is a W LAN ?
Wireless Local Area Network
Group of computers that are

connected using a wireless


distribution method within a limited
area

W hat are the advantanges to


LAN ?
Increased Productivity
Fast and Simple Network Set Up
Installation Flexibility
Reduced Cost-of-Ownership
Scalability

W hat is 802.11
Wireless networking hardware

requires the use of underlying


technology that deals with radio
frequencies as well as data
transmission. The most widely used
standard is 802.11 produced by the
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE). This is a standard
defining all aspects of Radio
Frequency Wireless networking.

Architecture
Station
BSS
IBSS
Infrastracture BSS
ESS
Distribution System

BSS
The Basic Service Set (BSS) is a set

of all stations that can communicate


with each other. There are two types
of BSS: Independent BSS and
Infrastructure BSS. Every BSS has an
id called the BSSID, it is the MAC
address of the access point servicing
the BSS.

IBSS
Independent Basic Service Set
An Independent Basic Service Set or

ad hoc network is the simplest of all


IEEE 802.11 networks in that no
network infrastructure is required. As
such, an IBSS is simply comprised of
one or more Stations which
communicate directly with each
other.

Infrastracture BSS
An Infrastructure BSS can

communicate with other stations not


in the same basic service set by
communicating to each other
through Access Points.

ESS
An extended service set (ESS) is

made up of two or more BSSs with


APs. In this
case, the BSSs are connected
through a distribution system, which
is usually a wired
LAN.

SSID
a series of 0 to 32 octets. It is used

as a unique identifier for a wireless


LAN

D istribution System
A distribution system connects

Access Points in an extended service


set. A distribution system is usually a
wired LAN but can be a wireless LAN

O ther Types ofW LAN


BLUETOOTH
HIPERLAN

TY P ES O F W IR ELESS
LO C A L A R EA N ETW O R K

Types ofW LAN


Private Wireless LANs
Usually up to 200-ft radius.
Suitable for homes and small businesses.

Wide Area WLAN


Up to 10-mile radius.
Same with Private WLAN but with more

powerful antennas and transceivers.


Used over a large industrial estate or
parks.

Types ofW LAN


Business WLAN
Expansion of the Private WLAN.
Use of multiple Access Points.
Usually used in hotels and office

buildings.

Enterprise WLAN
Expansion of the Business WLAN.
Usually found within governmental,

academic, or large corporate


organizations

W IR ELESS LA N B A S IC
M O D ES O F O P ER ATIO N

W LAN Basic M odes ofO peration


Infrastructure
Most Wi-Fi networks are deployed in

this mode.
A base stations acts as a wireless
access point hub.
Wireless access points are usually
fixed.
Can have multiple access points
with the same SSID.

Infrastructure

W LAN Basic M odes ofO peration


Peer-to-Peer (Ad-Hoc)
A network where stations

communicate only peer to peer (P2P).


It is done using the Independent Basic
Service Set (IBSS)
It allows wireless devices to directly
communicate with each other.
Easier to set-up if you just want to
connect two devices to each other.

Peer-to-Peer

W I-FI

Introduction
Wireless technology is an alternative

to wired technology which is


commonly used for connecting
devices in wireless mode.
Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) is a generic
term that refers to 802.11 standard
for Wireless Local Area Networks
Wi-Fi Network connect computers to
each other, to the internet, and to
the wired network.

Introduction
It usually operates using

2.4GHz(UHF) and 5GHz(SHF)


Uses radio waves to provide
wireless high-speedinternet
andnetwork connections

Father ofW i-Fi


Vic H ayes

H istory
1997
Wi-Fi was first released for

consumers
802.11 standard was created

1999
Release of routers

2003
802.11g standard was created

H istory

2009
Arrival of 802.11n
2012
801.11ac was created

IEEE S TA N D A R D S

IEEE standard 802.11a:


first variety of IEEE 802.11

introduced in 2001
operated in 5GHz ISM band
Theindustrial, scientific and
medical (ISM) radio bandsare
radio bandsreserved
internationally for the use of
radio frequency(RF) energy for
industrial, scientific and medical
purposes other than

-Theoretical speed: 54Mbps

-Actual Speed: 15-20Mbps

-Longest range: 50-75 ft

*less able to penetrate physical

barriers like walls of the buildings


* The modulation used is
Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing to enable to transfer
at a maximum rate though the
realistic is around 20Mbps

*The use of OFDM provides a

significant reduction in the problems


of interference caused by multipath
effects. The use of OFDM also
ensures that there is efficient use of
the radio spectrum.
*OFDM works by splitting the radio signal
into multiple smaller sub-signals that are
then transmitted simultaneously at
different frequencies to the receiver.
OFDM reduces the amount ofcrosstalkin
signal transmissions.

IEEE standard 802.11b:


- wireless LAN standard to be widely

adopted appear in late 1999

-high rate or wifi


* built in to many laptop
computers and other forms of
equipment

- operates in 2.4GHz

* Devices operating in the 2.4GHz range

include microwave ovens, Bluetooth devices,


baby monitors, cordless telephones, and
some amateur radio equipment.
*interferences from mobile phones and
Bluetooth devices can reduce the
transmission speed

-Theoretical Speed: 11Mbps


-Actual Speed: 4-6Mbps
-Longest range: 70-150 ft

*better in penetrating physical barriers but

more susceptible to interference


*When transmitting data 802.11b uses the
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access)/
Collision Detection technique. If no
transmission is taking place at the time,
the particular station can transmit. If two
stations attempt to transmit
simultaneously, this causes a collision,
which is detected by all participating
stations. After a random time interval, the
stations that collided attempt to transmit
again. If another collision occurs, the time
intervals from which the random waiting
time is selected are increased.

IEEE standard 802.11g:


-combination feature of IEEE 802.11a

and IEEE 802.11b introduced in 2003


* 802.11g attempts to combine the
best of both 802.11a and 802.11b.
-operates in 2.4GHz
-supports a bandwidth up to 54Mbps
-Longest range: 65-120ft
- 802.11g is backwards compatible
with 802.11b

* 802.11g access points will work with

802.11b wireless network adapters and


vice versa
* Backward compatible(or
sometimesbackward-compatibleor
backwards compatible) refers to a
hardware or software system that can
successfully use interfaces and data
from earlier versions of the system or
with other systems.
*has fast maximum speed
*expensive devices
*signal range is not easily blocked

802.11n
Wireless network bearer operating in the 2.4

and 5 GHz ISM bands


Most widely available among the standards
Backward compatible with 802.11a,
802.11b, and 802.11g
Can achieve speed as high as 140 megabits
per second
It was built with more antennas and multiple
streams of data
It can transmit up to 4 streams of data, each
at a maximum of 150 megabits per second

802.11n
Major innovations in 802.11n

-Changes to implementation of OFDM


-Introduction of MIMO
-MIMO power saving
-Wider channel bandwidth
-Antenna technology
-Reduced support for backward
compatibility under special
circumstances to improve data
throughput

802.11ac
Wireless network bearer operating

below 6GHz
Four times the speed than 802.11n
802.11ac is backward compatible
with 802.11n
Also called as 5G Wi-Fi or VHT
enables absolute maximum data
rates of nearly 7 Gbps

802.11ac
MU MIMO is implemented
Is able to use up to eight spatial

streams

802.11ad
Wireless network bearer providing

very high throughput at


frequencies up to 60GHz
Also known as WiGig
Aims to provide data throughput
speeds of up to 7 Gbps
used for very short range high
volume data transfers

802.11ad

ELEM EN TS O F A W IFI
S Y S TEM

Elem ents ofa W iFiSystem


Access Point (AP)

An access point acts as a base station which


connects one or many wireless devices simultaneously to the
internet.
A single access point can support up to 30 users and can
function within a range of 100 150 feet indoors and up to 300
feet outdoors.

Elem ents ofa W iFiSystem


Wi-Fi Cards

W i-Ficards are em bedded w ithin the router and are


responsible for accepting w ireless signals and relaying
inform ation.

Elem ents ofa W iFiSystem


Safeguards - Protect networks from

unwanted users and keeps


information secure.

H ow W iFiW orks
Look for a Hotspot zone
When Wi-Fi enabled device
encounters a hotspot the device can
then connect to that network
wirelessly.
Many access points can be connected
to each other via Ethernet cables to
create a single large network.

H ow W iFiW orks

Security
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption

designed to protect against casual snooping but


it is no longer considered secure. Tools such as
AirSnort or Aircracking can quickly recover WEP
encryption keys.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) was then
approved which uses Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol TKIP.
WPA2 is more secure using Advanced
Encryption Standard was introduced in 2004
and is supported by most new Wi-Fi devices. It
uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Security
1.WPA2 is the improved version of WPA
2.WPA only supports TKIP encryption
while WPA2 supports AES
3.Theoretically, WPA2 cant be hacked
while WPA is
4.WPA2 requires more processing
power than WPA

EN CRYPTIO N
Encryptionis the conversion of electronic

data into another form, called ciphertext,


which cannot be easily understood by
anyone except authorized parties
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
-uses RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4 also known
asARC4orARCFOURmeaning Alleged
RC4) for authentication and encryption
-used standard 40-bit key then became
maximum size is 104 bit-keys

Encryption is the conversion of electronic

data into another form, called ciphertext,


which cannot be easily understood by
anyone except authorized parties.
RC4 is a stream cipher.
This means that for each bit of plaintext, it
produces one bit of keystream and xors the
two, to generate the ciphertext. The
keystream is simply a stream of random
numbers, generated from the RC4 algorithm.
Aims to provide security by encryptingdata
over radio waves so that it is protected as it
is transmitted from one end point to another.

However, it has been found that WEP is not

secured type of network security. Its security


level is Low, easily cracked by active or
passive attacks.
RC4 is a stream cipher. This means that for each bit
of plaintext, it produces one bit of keystream and
xors the two, to generate the ciphertext. The
keystream is simply a stream of random numbers,
generated from the RC4 algorithm.
In the most basic operation of a stream cipher, the
algorithm is seeded with a key, such that the same
key will always produce the same stream of random
numbers. Since both the client and server know the
key, they can produce the same keysteam. This
allows the client to xor the plaintext with the
keystream to produce the ciphertext, and the server
to xor the ciphertext with the keystream to produce
the plaintext again.

W LA N V S W I-FI

W LAN vs W i-Fi
WLAN is a type of Computer

Network.
Wi-Fi is a trademark name to brand
devices compliant to IEEE 802.11
standards.
Devices in a WLAN essentially use
Wi-Fi branded products.
A Wi-Fi ready device means that it is
ready for network operation within a
WLAN

TH A N K YO U !