The Learning Process The Learning Process and Theories of and Theories of Learning Learning

By: Jeanne Balili-Falle, RN

Objectives:
• 1. 2. 3. d. e. f. • • d. At the end of the presentation the students will be able to: Understand the definition of Learning. Recognize the different learning styles. Recognize the different learning theories: Behaviorism Theory Cognitive Theory Social Cognition Social Constructivism Social Learning Theory Humanist Theory

Definitions: Learning is:
1. “a persisting change in human performance or performance potential . . . (brought) about as a result of the learner’s interaction with the environment” (Driscoll, 1994, pp. 8-9). 2. “the relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior due to experience” (Mayer, 1982, p. 1040). 3. “an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience” (Shuell, 1986, p. 412).

1.

Cognitive

Types of Learning
a. Associative b. Problem-solving a. Aesthetic b. Intellectual

2. Attitudinal or Affective Learning 3. Psychomotor

a. Bodily movement coordination b. Manipulative dexterity

The Nature of Learning
• Learning is the acquisition through maturation and experience of new and more knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will enable the learner to make better and more adequate reactions, responses and adjustments to new situations and conditions

Classification of Learning
1. Congenital 2. Temporary 3. Permanent

Other Kinds of Learning
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sensory Motor Verbal Ideational Attitudinal

Learning styles
• Kolb’s experiential learning theory (learning styles) model • Kolb's learning theory sets out four distinct learning styles (or preferences), which are based on a four-stage learning cycle

Kolb’s Learning styles
1. 2. 3. 4. Diverging Assimilating Converging Accommodating

Honey and Mumford’s Model of Learning styles
Learning stage Having an experience Learning style Activist 

Reviewing the experience Reflector Concluding from the experience Planning the next steps Theorist

Pragmatist

Learning Theories
A. Behaviorism B. Cognitivism C. Social Cognition D. Humanistic

I. Behaviorism theory
• • • Primary Focus – Observable behaviour – Stimulus-response connections Assumptions – Learning is a result of environmental forces Major Theorists A. Pavlov B. Watson C. Thorndike D. Skinner

A. Ivan Pavlov
– CLASSICAL CONDITIONING – Experiments with digestive system in dogs – Learning through association – Reflexes

Pavlov’s Dog

Processes of Classical Conditioning
1. 2. 3. 4. Acquisition Extinction Generalization Discrimination

B. John Broadus Watson
– Introspection – ‘tabula rasa’

C. Edward LeeThorndike
– – – – Instrumental learning Law of Readiness Law of Exercise Law of Effect

D. Burrhus Frederick Skinner
• Operant Conditioning • Behaviour Shaping • Reinforcement

• anything which increases desired behaviour

Processes involved in Operant Conditioning
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reinforcement Punishment Shaping Extinction Generalization

Reinforcement
• Positive • Negative
– giving something good - increases desired behaviour – taking away something bad - increases desired behaviour – applying something bad - reduces undesired behaviour

• Punishment

Behaviorism in the Classroom
• Rewards and punishments • Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher • Lecture-based, highly structured

II. Cognitive theory
• Primary Focus
– – – –

• Assumptions
A. Bruner B. Piaget

Mental behaviour Knowledge Intelligence Critical Thinking

• Major Theorists

– Learning is a result of mental operations/ processing

A. Jerome Bruner
– Work
• from the known to the unknown • from the concrete to the abstract

– Relate new knowledge to existing knowledge

Processes involved in Bruner’s Theory
A. Acquisition - Process of obtaining and assimilating with understanding new information better than a previously learned one B. Transformation - Process of manipulating or utilizing the information gained to remove a difficulty or to solve a problem to which it is C. Evaluation - Process of finding out whether the information acquired is appropriately utilized.

B. Jean Piaget
– – – – Interaction with the environment Development of ‘schemata’ Active nature of learning Discovery learning

Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development
– Sensorimotor stage (Infancy). – Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood) Use of symbols, language use matures, memory and imagination are developed, thinking is nonlogical, nonreversable. – Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence). Intelligence demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. – Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood). Intelligence demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts.

Cognitivism in the Classroom
• Inquiry-oriented projects • Opportunities for the testing of hypotheses • Curiosity encouraged • Staged scaffolding

III. Social Cognition
• Primary Focus
– – – – Modelling Vicarious Learning Attitudes Goals

• Assumptions

• Major Theorists

– Learning is a result of influences of social environment on thinking. A. Social Learning Theory- A. Bandura B. Social Constructivism - Vygotsky

A. Social Learning Theory (SLT)
• Grew out of Cognitivism • A. Bandura (1973) • Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiences • Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery • SLT is the basis of the movement against violence in media & video games

4 subprocesses of social learning
1. 2. 3. 4. Attention Retention Motoric reproduction Reinforcement

Learning From Models Albert Bandura
1. Attend to pertinent clues 2. Code for memory (store a visual image) 3. Retain in memory 4. Accurately reproduce the observed activity 5. Possess sufficient motivation to apply new learning

Social Learning Theory
Through identification, children come to believe they have the same characteristics as the model.
When they identify with a nurturant and competent model, children feel pleased and proud. When they identify with an inadequate model, children feel unhappy and insecure.

SLT in the Classroom
• Collaborative learning and group work • Modeling responses and expectations • Opportunities to observe experts in action

B. Social Constructivism
Knowledge is actively constructed • Learning is…
– – – – – A search for meaning by the learner Contextualized An inherently social activity Dialogic and recursive The responsibility of the learner

• Lev Vygotsky

– Social Learning • Zone of Proximal Development

Social Constructivism in the Classroom
• Journaling • Experiential activities • Personal focus • Collaborative & cooperative learning

D. Humanist Theory
• Primary Focus
– Affect/Values – Self-Concept/Self-Esteem – Needs – Learning is a result of affect/emotion and goalorientation – Rogers – Knowles – Maslow

• Assumptions

• Major Theorists

Humanist Theory
A. Carl Rogers
– Total personality

B. Maslow - Maslow’s heirarchy of needs

Have a nice day!!
• Jeanne Balili-Falle

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