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EBB 4043

ELECTRICAL AND ENERGY


SYSTEM

LECTURE 2
STEAM
TURBINE

Objectives
To identify the main part of
steam power plant.
To understand the working
principle of steam power plant.
To understand the layout of
steam power plant.

Classification of Power
Plant
Power plants using
conventional (nonrenewable) sources of energy

Steam power plant


Nuclear power plant
Diesel power plant
Gas power plant

Classification of Power
Plant
Power plants using Nonconventional(renewable) sources of
energy

Hydro electric power plant


Solar thermal power plant
Wind powered generation(aerogeneration)
Wave power plant
Tidal power plant
Geothermal power plant
Bio-mass power plant
Oceanthermal power plant

Steam Power Plant


Fuel : Coal / Gas /Oil
Main parts : Boiler, Turbine, Generator

How is electric power


produced using oil, coal
or natural gas?
Steam Turbine
Combined Power Plant (Gas
Turbine and Steam Turbine)
Gas Turbine
Diesel Engine

Principle of Steam
Turbine

Main parts of steam


turbine
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Terminology

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Boiler
An important part of steam power production
systems.
The function of a boiler is to provide an
enclosure in which pressurized water can be
heated to a high temperature to produce
steam.
The heat from burning fossil is transferred to
an area through which pressurized water
flows - the water is converted to steam
The transfer of heat within a boiler utilizes the
three methods of heat transfer: radiation,
conduction and convection.
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Boiler
The radiation method involves the movement of
heat energy from a warm area to a cool area, and
is dependent upon temperature difference and the
ability of materials to absorb heat.
The conduction method requires contact between
the heat source and the heated area, and it relies
upon the heat conductivity of the heated material.
Convection is the movement of heat from a hot
area to a cooler area by means of an intermediate
substance, such as gas.
Each of these three methods of heat transfer
occurs in varying amounts, depending upon boiler
design.
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Boiler
A boiler must functions properly as the boiler operation
determines the quantity of steam available to produce the
rotary motion of the turbine.
When more power input for the generating process is required,
because of an increased load on the system, the boiler must
deliver more steam to the turbine.
Boilers must be able to provide effective water circulation,
efficient fuel combustion, and maximum heat transfer to the
circulating water.
The boilers used in most steam power plants today are called
water-tube boilers.
Their design consists of banks of tubes, separated by heat
insulation where water is circulated through the tubes under
high temperature and high pressure.
Boiler design is very important for an efficient steam power
plant operation.
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Stocker Boiler

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Boiler Coal/Gas/Oil

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Boiler Gas / Oil

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Boiler Auxiliary Systems


There are several auxiliary
systems used in a steam power
plant to increase the operation
and efficiency of the boilers.
Among them are

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Economizer
Feedwater Heaters
Preheater
Superheater

Economizer
Economizers utilize the hot exhaust
gases from the fuel reactions within
a boiler to preheat the cold
feedwater that is pumped into the
boiler.
Thus, the economizer uses the
waste gases, which would otherwise
be emitted through the exhaust
stack, for an important purpose.
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Feedwater Heater and


Preheater
Feedwater heaters and
preheaters are used to increase
the water temperature before
its entry into the boiler.
These systems heat the
pumped feedwater by means of
steam, which is circulated
through the unit.
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Superheater
These units consist of banks of tubes
located at the hottest area of the
boiler.
Steam flows through these tubes
before its entry into the steam
turbine.
The purpose of the superheater is to
cause the steam to reach a higher
temperature so as to produce more
energy in the steam turbine.
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Turbine
After steam has been produced,
a rotary motion must be
developed.
This rotary motion is produced
by a steam turbine.
The rotor is usually divided into
two partsthe high pressure
rotor and the low pressure rotor.
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Turbine
The low-pressure rotor is larger in
diameter than the high-pressure rotor.
Steam is channelled to the highpressure rotor, and it is then routed to
the low-pressure rotor.
Steam turbines ordinarily achieve a
maximum efficiency of less than 30
percent, but only when run at very
high speeds.

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Turbine

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Expanded View of
Turbine

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Turbine Generator

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Turbine Rotor

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Condenser
Condensers are used to cool the used
steam that has passed through the steam
turbine .
Extraction turbines have a steam condenser
operating under a vacuum to condense the
steam not extracted for other processes.
The condensate (condensed steam) is
returned to the boilers to produce steam
again.
The unused heat from the condensed steam
is rejected to the lake.
Extraction turbines are able to meet
variable steam load conditions and still
maintain electrical production needs.
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Condenser

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Chimney fly ash

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Cooling Tower

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Steam Power Plant


Animation

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Pros and Cons


Advantages of thermal power plant :
Low initial cost
Since located near the load centre, the cost of transmission and
the losses due to transmission are considerably reduced.
The construction and commissioning of thermal power plant
takes lesser period.

Disadvantages of thermal power plant:

Fuel is a non-renewable source of energy.


Efficiency decreases with decreasing load.
Cost of power generation is high.
Smoke produced by burning the fuel causes air pollution.
Life of thermal power plant is 25 years. The efficiency decreases
to less than 10% after its life period.
Turbines has a high running speed of 3000 to 4000 rpm.

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