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FIELD EFFECT

TRANSISTORS (FET)

Objectives

Illustrate the physical structure and schematic symbol


of JFET and MOSFET

Explain biasing circuit: CS, CD & CG Amplifier

Explain I-V characteristics and operating region.

Explain FET as a switch

Introduction

Junction Field Effect Transistors JFET control current by


voltage applied to the gate.

The FETs major advantage over the BJT is high input


resistance.

JFET are more temperature stable than bipolar.

Overall, the purpose of the FET is the same as that of


the BJT.

I-V characteristics

MOSFET

Themetaloxidesemiconductor field-effect
transistor(MOSFET,MOS-FET, orMOS FET) is
atransistorused for amplifying or switching
electronicsignals.

In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate


electrode can induce aconducting channelbetween the
two other contacts called source and drain. The channel
can be ofn-typeorp-type(see article
onsemiconductor devices), and is accordingly called an
nMOSFET or a pMOSFET (also commonly nMOS, pMOS). It
is by far the most commontransistor in bothdigitaland
analog circuits, though thebipolar junction
transistorwas at one time much more common.

N-MOS & P-MOS


N-MOS

n-channel MOSFETs are smaller than p-channel MOSFETs


and producing only one type of MOSFET on a silicon
substrate is cheaper and technically simpler.

These were the driving principles in the design ofNMOS


logicwhich uses n-channel MOSFETs exclusively.

However, unlike CMOS logic, NMOS logic consumes


power even when no switching is taking place.

Contd
P-MOS

P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logicusesptypemetal-oxide-semiconductorfield effect


transistors(MOSFETs) to implementlogic gatesand
otherdigital circuits.

PMOS transistors have four modes of operation: cut-off


(or subthreshold), triode, saturation (sometimes called
active) and velocity saturation.

Contd

PMOS logic is easy to design and manufacture (a MOSFET can be made to


operate as a resistor, so the whole circuit can be made with PMOS FETs).

PMOS circuits are slow to transition from high to low.

When transitioning from low to high, the transistors provide low


resistance, and the capacitive charge at the output drains away very
quickly.

Schematic diagram

N-MOS

PMOS

D-MOSFET (Depletion mode)

D-MOSFETs can operate in the depletion and


enhancement modes.

Zero bias:The gate is shorted to the source, so drain current (by definition)
equals the IDSS rating of the component. (Remember: IDSS is the shorted
gate-drain current.)

Depletion mode:The negative gate-source voltage forces free electrons away


from the gate, forming a depletion layer that cuts into the channel. As a
result,
ID < IDSS

Enhancement mode:The positive gate-source voltage attracts free electrons


in
the substrate toward the channel while driving valence-band holes (in the
substrate) away from the channel. As a result, the material to the right of the
channelef f ect i vel ybecomesn-type material. This results in a wider
channel,
and ID > IDSS

E-MOSFETs

E-MOSFETs are restricted to enhancement-mode operation.

When an E-MOSFET is zero biased, there is no channel between the source


and drain materials, and ID=0A. When VGSexceeds the threshold voltage
rating for the component VTH, a channel is formed.

This allows a current to pass through the component. The operation of the
E-MOSFET is represented by the transconductance curve. Note that the
IDSSrating for the component is, by definition, the value of drain current
when VGS=VTH. Since the channel is just beginning to form when
VGS=VTH ,IDSS0A

NMOS I-V CHARACTERISTICS

Since the transistor is a 3-terminal device, there


is no
single I-V characteristic.
Note that because of the gate insulator, IG = 0
A.
We typically define the MOS I-V characteristic
as

N-MOS I-V CURVE

Cutoff Mode
Occurs when VGS VTH(N)
ID= 0
Triode Mode
Occurs when VGS > VTH(N) and VDS < VGS-VTH(N)
Saturation Mode
Occurs when VGS > VTH(N) and VDS VGS -VTH(N)

PMOS IV CHARACTERISTICS

ID, VGS, VDS, and VTH(P) are all negative for PMOS.
These values are positive for NMOS.
Channel formed when VGS < VTH(P) .Opposite for
NMOS .
Saturation occurs when VDS VGS VTH(P) .
Opposite for NMOS

P-MOS I-V CURVE

Cutoff Mode
Occurs when VGS VTH(P)
ID= 0
Triode Mode
Occurs when VGS < VTH(P) and VDS > VGS -VTH(P)
Saturation Mode
Occurs when VGS < VTH(P) and VDS VGS- VTH(P)

MOSFET I-V CHARACTERISTICS

Triode mode or linear region


(also known as the ohmic mode)

WhenVGS> VthandVDS< ( VGS Vth)

The transistor is turned on, and a channel has been created which allows
current to flow between the drain and the source.

The MOSFET operates like a resistor, controlled by the gate voltage


relative to both the source and drain voltages.

Saturation or active mode

WhenVGS> VthandVDS> ( VGS Vth)

The switch is turned on, and a channel has been created, which allows
current to flow between the drain and source.

Since the drain voltage is higher than the gate voltage, the electrons
spread out, and conduction is not through a narrow channel but through a
broader, two- or three-dimensional current distribution extending away
from the interface and deeper in the substrate.

The onset of this region is also known aspinch-offto indicate the lack of
channel region near the drain. The drain current is now weakly dependent
upon drain voltage and controlled primarily by the gatesource voltage.

JFET AMPLIFIER

FET amplifier application:

Amplifying low-level signals in receiver

Power Amplifier

Switching

Standard Amplifier configuration:

Common-Sources

Common Drain

Common Gate

Common Source Amplifier

AC input signal is applied to the gate and AC output


signal is taken from the drain.

A common source amplifier either has no source resistor


or has a bypassed source resistor. The source is
connected to the ground.

Common Drain Amplifier

Input signal is applied to the gate and output is taking


from the source.

There is no drain resistor.

The input signal is applied to the gate through a


coupling capacitor, C1 and the output signal is coupled
to the load resistor through C2.

Common Gate Amplifier

The gate is connected directly to ground

The input signal is applied at the source C1. The output


is coupled through C2 from the drain terminal.

Data Sheet

MOSFET AS SWITCHES

MOSFET switches use the MOSFET channel as a lowonresistance switch to pass analog signals when on, and as
a high impedance when off. Signals flow in both
directions across a MOSFET switch.

In this application the drain and source of a MOSFET


exchange places depending on the voltages of each
electrode compared to that of the gate.

Contd

For a simple MOSFET without an integrated diode, the source is the more
negative side for an N-MOS or the more positive side for a P-MOS.

All of these switches are limited on what signals they can pass or stop by
their gate-source, gate-drain and source-drain voltages, and source-todrain currents; exceeding the voltage limits will potentially damage the
switch.

MOSFET CHARACTERISTIC
CURVE

1.Cut-off Region

Here the operating conditions of the transistor are zero input gate voltage
(VIN), zero drain currentIDand output voltageVDS=VDDTherefore the
MOSFET is switched "Fully-OFF".

Saturation Region

Here the transistor will be biased so that the maximum amount of gate
voltage is applied to the device which results in the channel
resistanceRDS(on)being as small as possible with maximum drain current
flowing through the MOSFET switch. Therefore the MOSFET is switched
"Fully-ON".

N-MOS as switch

The

input and Gate are grounded (0v)


Gate-source voltage less than threshold voltageV GS<VTH
MOSFET is "fully-OFF" (Cut-off region)
No Drain current flows (ID=0)
VOUT=VDS=VDD="1"
MOSFET operates as an "open switch"
Then we can define the "cut-off region" or "OFF mode" of a
MOSFET switch
as being, gate voltage,VGS<VTHandID=0.
For a P-channel MOSFET, the gate potential must be negative.

The

input and Gate are connected toVDD


Gate-source voltage is much greater than threshold
voltageVGS>VTH
MOSFET is "fully-ON" (saturation region)
Max Drain current flows (ID=VDD/ RL)
VDS=0V(ideal saturation)
Min channel resistanceRDS(on)<0.1
VOUT=VDS=0.2V (RDS.ID)
MOSFET operates as a "closed switch"
Then we can define the "saturation region" or "ON mode" of a
MOSFET switch as gate-source voltage,VGS>VTHandID=Maximum.

P-channel MOSFET Switch

APPLICATION MOSFET AS
SWITCH

In this circuit arrangement an Enhancement-mode N-channel MOSFET is


being used to switch a simple lamp "ON" and "OFF" (could also be an LED).
The gate input voltageVGSis taken to an appropriate positive voltage level
to turn the device and therefore the lamp either fully "ON", (VGS=+ve) or
at a zero voltage level that turns the device fully "OFF", (VGS=0).

If the resistive load of the lamp was to be replaced by an inductive load


such as a coil, solenoid or relay a "flywheel diode" would be required in
parallel with the load to protect the MOSFET from any self generated
back-emf.

In a P-channel device the conventional flow of drain current is in the


negative direction so a negative gate-source voltage is applied to switch
the transistor "ON". This is achieved because the P-channel MOSFET is
"upside down" with its source terminal tied to the positive supply+V DD.
Then when the switch goes LOW, the MOSFET turns "ON" and when the
switch goes HIGH the MOSFET turns "OFF".

This upside down connection of a P-channel enhancement mode MOSFET


switch allows us to connect it in series with a N-channel enhancement
mode MOSFET to produce a complementary or CMOS switching device as
shown across a dual supply.