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Illustrate the physical structure and schematic symbol


Explain biasing circuit: CS, CD & CG Amplifier

Explain I-V characteristics and operating region.

Explain FET as a switch


Junction Field Effect Transistors JFET control current by

voltage applied to the gate.

The FETs major advantage over the BJT is high input


JFET are more temperature stable than bipolar.

Overall, the purpose of the FET is the same as that of

the BJT.

I-V characteristics


Themetaloxidesemiconductor field-effect
transistor(MOSFET,MOS-FET, orMOS FET) is
atransistorused for amplifying or switching

In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate

electrode can induce aconducting channelbetween the
two other contacts called source and drain. The channel
can be ofn-typeorp-type(see article
onsemiconductor devices), and is accordingly called an
nMOSFET or a pMOSFET (also commonly nMOS, pMOS). It
is by far the most commontransistor in bothdigitaland
analog circuits, though thebipolar junction
transistorwas at one time much more common.



n-channel MOSFETs are smaller than p-channel MOSFETs

and producing only one type of MOSFET on a silicon
substrate is cheaper and technically simpler.

These were the driving principles in the design ofNMOS

logicwhich uses n-channel MOSFETs exclusively.

However, unlike CMOS logic, NMOS logic consumes

power even when no switching is taking place.


P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logicusesptypemetal-oxide-semiconductorfield effect

transistors(MOSFETs) to implementlogic gatesand
otherdigital circuits.

PMOS transistors have four modes of operation: cut-off

(or subthreshold), triode, saturation (sometimes called
active) and velocity saturation.


PMOS logic is easy to design and manufacture (a MOSFET can be made to

operate as a resistor, so the whole circuit can be made with PMOS FETs).

PMOS circuits are slow to transition from high to low.

When transitioning from low to high, the transistors provide low

resistance, and the capacitive charge at the output drains away very

Schematic diagram



D-MOSFET (Depletion mode)

D-MOSFETs can operate in the depletion and

enhancement modes.

Zero bias:The gate is shorted to the source, so drain current (by definition)
equals the IDSS rating of the component. (Remember: IDSS is the shorted
gate-drain current.)

Depletion mode:The negative gate-source voltage forces free electrons away

from the gate, forming a depletion layer that cuts into the channel. As a

Enhancement mode:The positive gate-source voltage attracts free electrons

the substrate toward the channel while driving valence-band holes (in the
substrate) away from the channel. As a result, the material to the right of the
channelef f ect i vel ybecomesn-type material. This results in a wider
and ID > IDSS


E-MOSFETs are restricted to enhancement-mode operation.

When an E-MOSFET is zero biased, there is no channel between the source

and drain materials, and ID=0A. When VGSexceeds the threshold voltage
rating for the component VTH, a channel is formed.

This allows a current to pass through the component. The operation of the
E-MOSFET is represented by the transconductance curve. Note that the
IDSSrating for the component is, by definition, the value of drain current
when VGS=VTH. Since the channel is just beginning to form when


Since the transistor is a 3-terminal device, there

is no
single I-V characteristic.
Note that because of the gate insulator, IG = 0
We typically define the MOS I-V characteristic


Cutoff Mode
Occurs when VGS VTH(N)
ID= 0
Triode Mode
Occurs when VGS > VTH(N) and VDS < VGS-VTH(N)
Saturation Mode
Occurs when VGS > VTH(N) and VDS VGS -VTH(N)


ID, VGS, VDS, and VTH(P) are all negative for PMOS.
These values are positive for NMOS.
Channel formed when VGS < VTH(P) .Opposite for
Saturation occurs when VDS VGS VTH(P) .
Opposite for NMOS


Cutoff Mode
Occurs when VGS VTH(P)
ID= 0
Triode Mode
Occurs when VGS < VTH(P) and VDS > VGS -VTH(P)
Saturation Mode
Occurs when VGS < VTH(P) and VDS VGS- VTH(P)


Triode mode or linear region

(also known as the ohmic mode)

WhenVGS> VthandVDS< ( VGS Vth)

The transistor is turned on, and a channel has been created which allows
current to flow between the drain and the source.

The MOSFET operates like a resistor, controlled by the gate voltage

relative to both the source and drain voltages.

Saturation or active mode

WhenVGS> VthandVDS> ( VGS Vth)

The switch is turned on, and a channel has been created, which allows
current to flow between the drain and source.

Since the drain voltage is higher than the gate voltage, the electrons
spread out, and conduction is not through a narrow channel but through a
broader, two- or three-dimensional current distribution extending away
from the interface and deeper in the substrate.

The onset of this region is also known aspinch-offto indicate the lack of
channel region near the drain. The drain current is now weakly dependent
upon drain voltage and controlled primarily by the gatesource voltage.


FET amplifier application:

Amplifying low-level signals in receiver

Power Amplifier


Standard Amplifier configuration:


Common Drain

Common Gate

Common Source Amplifier

AC input signal is applied to the gate and AC output

signal is taken from the drain.

A common source amplifier either has no source resistor

or has a bypassed source resistor. The source is
connected to the ground.

Common Drain Amplifier

Input signal is applied to the gate and output is taking

from the source.

There is no drain resistor.

The input signal is applied to the gate through a

coupling capacitor, C1 and the output signal is coupled
to the load resistor through C2.

Common Gate Amplifier

The gate is connected directly to ground

The input signal is applied at the source C1. The output

is coupled through C2 from the drain terminal.

Data Sheet


MOSFET switches use the MOSFET channel as a lowonresistance switch to pass analog signals when on, and as
a high impedance when off. Signals flow in both
directions across a MOSFET switch.

In this application the drain and source of a MOSFET

exchange places depending on the voltages of each
electrode compared to that of the gate.


For a simple MOSFET without an integrated diode, the source is the more
negative side for an N-MOS or the more positive side for a P-MOS.

All of these switches are limited on what signals they can pass or stop by
their gate-source, gate-drain and source-drain voltages, and source-todrain currents; exceeding the voltage limits will potentially damage the


1.Cut-off Region

Here the operating conditions of the transistor are zero input gate voltage
(VIN), zero drain currentIDand output voltageVDS=VDDTherefore the
MOSFET is switched "Fully-OFF".

Saturation Region

Here the transistor will be biased so that the maximum amount of gate
voltage is applied to the device which results in the channel
resistanceRDS(on)being as small as possible with maximum drain current
flowing through the MOSFET switch. Therefore the MOSFET is switched

N-MOS as switch


input and Gate are grounded (0v)

Gate-source voltage less than threshold voltageV GS<VTH
MOSFET is "fully-OFF" (Cut-off region)
No Drain current flows (ID=0)
MOSFET operates as an "open switch"
Then we can define the "cut-off region" or "OFF mode" of a
MOSFET switch
as being, gate voltage,VGS<VTHandID=0.
For a P-channel MOSFET, the gate potential must be negative.


input and Gate are connected toVDD

Gate-source voltage is much greater than threshold
MOSFET is "fully-ON" (saturation region)
Max Drain current flows (ID=VDD/ RL)
VDS=0V(ideal saturation)
Min channel resistanceRDS(on)<0.1
MOSFET operates as a "closed switch"
Then we can define the "saturation region" or "ON mode" of a
MOSFET switch as gate-source voltage,VGS>VTHandID=Maximum.

P-channel MOSFET Switch


In this circuit arrangement an Enhancement-mode N-channel MOSFET is

being used to switch a simple lamp "ON" and "OFF" (could also be an LED).
The gate input voltageVGSis taken to an appropriate positive voltage level
to turn the device and therefore the lamp either fully "ON", (VGS=+ve) or
at a zero voltage level that turns the device fully "OFF", (VGS=0).

If the resistive load of the lamp was to be replaced by an inductive load

such as a coil, solenoid or relay a "flywheel diode" would be required in
parallel with the load to protect the MOSFET from any self generated

In a P-channel device the conventional flow of drain current is in the

negative direction so a negative gate-source voltage is applied to switch
the transistor "ON". This is achieved because the P-channel MOSFET is
"upside down" with its source terminal tied to the positive supply+V DD.
Then when the switch goes LOW, the MOSFET turns "ON" and when the
switch goes HIGH the MOSFET turns "OFF".

This upside down connection of a P-channel enhancement mode MOSFET

switch allows us to connect it in series with a N-channel enhancement
mode MOSFET to produce a complementary or CMOS switching device as
shown across a dual supply.