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CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

VCB 2023
Properties of
Hardened
Concrete

By
Prof Ir Dr Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin

Durability of hardened Concrete


The durability of concrete may be defined as its ability
to resist attack from the environment in which it is
placed.
Note
Note ::
ItIt isis important
important toto note
note that
that no
no material
material can
can be
be
considered
considered as
as inherently
inherently durable
durable because
because its
its
properties
properties will
will change
change with
with time
time as
as aa result
result ofof
environmental
environmentalinteractions.
interactions.
2

WHY IS DURABILITY
IMPORTANT TO CONCRETE
?
Concrete is capable of
maintenance-free performance
for decades without the need for
protective coating, except in
highly corrosive environment.
Durability is an important factor
in the life span of a concrete
structure

LOW QUALITY- Methods of Construction


(Honeycomb & low rebar cover)

LOW QUALITY
Chloride-induced damage

LOW QUALITY
Carbonation attack

LOW QUALITY
Inadequate Compaction
(Honeycomb)

LOW QUALITY
Sheet spalling

LOW QUALITY
Inadequate cover (Mildew attack)

Flow Chart of the Factors that Governed the


Quality Concrete
Cement
Composition
Quantity

Size Shape
Content

Aggregates
Grade Quantity

Performance
of Fresh
Concrete

Moisture

Mixing
of
Concrete

Transporting
Placing
Compacting

Performance of
Hardened
Concrete

Curing

Quantity
of
Water

FACTORS
AFFECTING
DURABILITY

What is
permeability ?
Permeability is the ease with
which a fluid (liquids or gases) can
travel thought concrete, under the
action of a pressure differential.

Porosity and
Permeability

Illustration of permeability and


porosity

Why Permeability is important


in terms of durability of
concrete ?
Since chemical attack takes place
within the concrete mass, the attacking
agent must be able to penetrate
through the concrete
Permeability affects the rate of entry of
moisture which may contain aggressive
chemicals and the movement of water
during heating or freezing.

Water/Cement Ratio

Cement Paste

Concrete

Water/cement ratio has the greatest


influence on durability because the
permeability is dominated by large
capillary porosity, rather than gel pores.

Water/ Cement
Ratio

Permeability

The permeability decreases as the


cement continues to hydrate and fills
some of the original water space.
The reduction in permeability will be
faster for lower w/c ratio.

Carbonation
Chemical reaction between atmospheric carbon
dioxide and the products of cement hydration.
Reinforcing steel is no longer protected against
corrosion at pH 9.5.
Various factors significantly influence the rate of
carbonation:
Moisture
Temperature
Carbon dioxide concentration.

PHYSICAL TEST
Test Methods

Principle

Main application

Absorption

Oven dried specimens with known


dimension cooled in water for 30 minutes

Indicates the quality and in particular the


absorption of concrete in relation to
durability

Permeability

Measure the flow rate of the water through


the concrete

Indicates the degree of protection to


reinforce offered by cover.

Initial surface absorption

Measure the flow rate of the water into the


surface concrete

Indicates the quality of the concrete

Leak Detection

Measure the clerical resistance between


surface and reinforce

Detects leakages in water proof


membranes

Oxygen Dillusion

Measure the rate of ingress of oxygen into


the concrete structure

Enables a maximum theoretical


corrosion rate to be determined

Carbon Dioxide Dillusion

Measure the rate of ingress of Carbon


Dioxide into the concrete structure

To estimate the rate of carbonation and


hence the time scale before possible
reinforcement corrosion

Air Entrainment

Examining a concrete sample Impregnated


with dye under the microscope

Effective protection of cement paste


from freezing and thawing cycles

TEST STANDARD
Test

British
Standard

American
Standard

Absorption

BS1881 Part 122

ASTM C642-82

Permeability
Initial Surface
Absorption

Water/Cement ratio

Chloride Content

Carbonation Depth

Other
Reference

NBN748.18 ISO/DIS
7032

Figg J.W. 1973

BS1881 Part 208


ASTM C457-82

Air Entrainment
Aggregate type

Other
Standard

BS1881 Part 6
BS 812 Part 1

ASTM C856-83

BS1881 Part 6

BS1881 Part 6

AASHTO T260-84

RILEM CPC-18