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VAB2023 MFN

CONCRETE
TECHNOLOGY
VCB 2023
Admixture
By
Prof Ir Dr Muhd Fadhil
Nuruddin

Admixtures
Material

which is added to concrete during


mixing in order to modify particular properties
of concrete

1.
Accelerators (CaCl2) NaCl, formate
triethenolamine
2.
Retarders Gypsum, sugars, lignosulphates
3.
Air entrainers - Wood resins/soaps, fats and oils
4.
Water reducers (plasticisers)
5.
Others
e.g. Corrosion Inhibiting
Admixtures

Admixtures
Why

use admixtures?

To give special properties to fresh or hardened


concrete
enhance durability, workability or strength
characteristics of mixture
to overcome difficult situation - hot/cold
weather concreting, pumping requirements,
early strength requirements, or very low w/c
ratio specifications
to ensure quality of concrete during mixing,
transporting, placing and curing
successful

usage depends on appropriate


methods during batching and concreting

Admixtures
Chemical

admixtures usually used in


small quantities (2%) of mix
Two types:
Chemical

Mineral

WaterSet
AirAccelerator
reducing entrainin
Retarders
g
Fly ash
(Pozzolan)

Slag (GGBS)

Silica
Fume

Admixtures
Mineral

admixture: added in larger amount

to enhance workability of fresh concrete


to improve resistance of concrete thermal
cracking,alkali-aggregate expansion and
sulphate attack
to enable reduction in cement content

Chemical

admixture: added in very small


amount for

entrainment of air
reduction of water or cement content
plasticization fresh concrete mixtures
control of setting time

Accelerator (ASTM Type C&E)


Accelerate

the hardening or
development of early strength
concrete
need not have any effect on the
setting (stiffening) time (BS 5075:Part
1:1982)
the admixture is usually dissolved in
water
the most common : Calcium Chloride
(<2% cement weight)

Accelerator
Benefit:

increase the resistance of


concrete to erosion and abrasion
improves strength development
CaCl2 reduces resistance to sulphate
attack, increases shrinkage and creep
application : low temp placing, urgent
repair works

Set Retarders (ASTM Type B&D)


Delay

the initial setting time of concrete


(BS5075:Part 1: 1982) by an hour or
more
also delay hardening time architectural finish of exposed
aggregate
offsets the effects of hot weather - allow
more time for placing and finishing

Set Retarders
Increase

plastic shrinkage
(extend plastic stage) but drying
shrinkage is unaffected.
compared with normal mix, the
early strength is reduced, later
strength increased - so long-term
strength maintained

Plasticizers - Water Reducers


(ASTM Type A)
Purpose:

Produce a concrete with lower w/c ratio,


greater plasticity and higher strengths
with minimal impact on setting time
to obtain higher slump using the same
water content (10% reduction)
consist

of low range, mid-range and


high-range(super-Plasticizers) types

Plasticizers (Water
Reducers)
Used

to increase slump for


pumping concrete and in hot
weather concreting to offset the
increased water demand
superplastisizers reduce water
content 12-25% - which increases
strength
increase slump to produce
flowing concrete

Plasticizers (Water Reducers)


Principal

active components:
surface active agents
dispersing ability of the admixture
gives greater surface area of
cement exposed to hydration hence an increase in early strength
long-term strength improved from
uniform distribution of the
dispersed cement throughout
concrete
effective with all types of cement

Air-entraining Admixtures
to

purposely produce microscopic


air bubbles in concrete
objective:
improve the durability and resistance
to damage from freezing and thawing
and de-icing salts
improve workability, reduce bleeding
and segregation

Air-entraining
Admixtures

application:

exterior flatwork
(parking lots, driveways,
sidewalks, pool decks, patios)
only to structures exposed to
freezing - assist in expansion and
shrinking of structures due to
thermal changes

Specifications of Various Type of


Admixtures (BS5075:Part 1:1982)
Type of
Water
Compacting Factor
admixture Reduction,

per cent

Accelerati
ng

Retarding

Normalwater
reducing

Accelerati
ng Water
Reducing

Retarding
Water
Reducing

8
8
8
8
-

Stiffening Time
Time from completion of mixing to
reach a resistance to penetration* of
0.5Mpa (70psi)
3.5Mpa (500psi)
Not more than
More than 1h
At least 1h less than
0.02 below control
the control mix
mix
Not more than
At least 1h
0.02 below control longer than
mix
control mix
At least 0.03 above
control mix
Not more than
Within 1h of
Within 1h of control
0.02 below control control mix
mix
mix
At least 0.03 below
control mix
Not more than
More than 1h
At least 1h less than
0.02 below control
control mix
mix
At least 0.03 below
control mix

Compressive Strength
Percentage of
Age
control mix
(minimum)
125
24h
95
28 days
90
95

7 days
28 days

90
90
110
110

7 days
28 days
7 days
28 days

125
90
125
110

24h
28 days
24h
28 days

90
90

7 days
28 days

Admixtures &
Type
Function
Functions
Air entraining
Improves durability, workability, reduces bleeding,
Superplasticizers

reduces freezing/thawing problems (e.g. special


detergents)
Increase strength by decreasing water needed for
workable concrete (e.g. special polymers)

Retarding

Delays setting time, more long term strength, offsets


adverse high temperature weather (e.g. sugar)

Accelerating

Speeds setting time, more early strength, offsets low


temperature weather (e.g. calcium chloride)

Mineral admixtures

Improves workability, plasticity, strength (e.g. fly ash)

Pigment

Add colour (e.g. metal oxides)