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Definition of communication

The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using

some other medium : television is an effective means of communication.


Written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Effective writing involves careful choice of words ,their organisation in correct order in sentence formation as well as cohesive composition of sentence. Entails transmission of message in black and white.

Consist of diagram, picture , graph ,etc . Reports , policies, rules, orders, instruction, agreement , etc.

It provides a long-lasting record of communication for future.

Definition of written communication

A medium for communication that entails the written word. Letters, emails, and manuals are forms of written communication.




Clear Thinking Good First Impressions Build Credibility Spreading Good Ideas

Impersonality Possibility of Miscommunication Lack of Instant Feedback Cost, Materials and Storage Liability

Characteristics of written communication

Written communication is essentially a creative activity. This is not a face to face communication situation. Written communication time factor involves. Formal communication must written communication. It involve notices, memos, deeds, resolution, affidavits, complaints, reports, financial statement, cost sheet, appointments, promotions, The process of written communication involve sending message by words.

7 C’s of effective communication

Clarity Courtes Completene y ss Effective business Consideratio communication Concisene n ss Concretenes Correctnes s s


Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific goal or objective at a time, rather than trying to move away from track.

Clarity helps to understand the message easily.

Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.

Clarity comes with the use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.



The information conveyed in the message should be complete for the communication to be effective.

The sender must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly.

Complete communication enhances the reputation of the organization.

Complete information always gives additional information wherever required, it leaves no question in the minds of the receiver.

Complete information helps in better decision making as it serves all the desired and crucial information.


Conciseness means communicating what you want to convey in least possible words.

Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication.

Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words.

Concise message is more appealing and comprehensive to the audience.

Concise messages are non repetitive in nature.


Correctness in the communication implies that the correct information is conveyed through message.

Correct communication boosts up the confidence level of the sender.

Correct information has greater impact on the audience.

Free from grammatical errors and use of appropriate and correct language.

Correct information includes the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the


Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather being fuzzy and general.

Concrete communication shows good level of confidence.

Concrete information helps to strengthen the reputation of the organization.

Concrete information cannot be misinterpreted.


Effective communication must take audience into consideration by knowing the viewpoints, back ground, mindset, educational level, etc.

Consideration implies ‘stepping into the shoes of others’.

Consideration ensures that the self respect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not harmed.

Consider the needs and requirements of the audience to achieve effective communication.


Courtesy means being polite, kind, judicious, enthusiastic and convincing.

Courtesy is an important element of effective communication.

Courtesy reflects the nature and character of the sender of the message.

It is the same as give respect and then expect the same.







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What we are taught….

Amount taught
Amount taught


Brainstorm What The Communication Must Include. Cluster your ideas into topics. Outline your topic, including sub-topics. Write a rough draft. Revise by editing your work. Proofread carefully. Produce the final draft.

Writing business letters

How to write a business letter?

Know what you want

Writing business letters How to write a business letter? Know what you want Address the reader
Address the reader Adapt so that the reader enjoys it
Address the reader
Adapt so that the
reader enjoys it

Keep it short and simple

Sum it up
Sum it up

Be professional, but not too formal

It's a fallacy to view all business communication as formal and stiff.

In today's open and democratic spirit, a letter that reads -- "I wish to apply to your esteemed company, or If given an opportunity I will work to ensure to your complete satisfaction. Yours Very Obediently," -- would sound archaic.

At the same time, informal shouldn't mean unprofessional -- there is no place for personal comments, off-color jokes, and gossip in your business mails.

ASAP for "as soon as possible" is accepted but not "Thks 4 ur gr8 help."

Be professional, but not too formal     It's a fallacy to view all

Avoid needless jargon

In a Forbes article titled The Most Annoying, Pretentious and Useless Business Jargon, writers Max Mallet ,Brett Nelson and Chris Steiner stated, "The next time you feel the need to reach out, touch base, shift a paradigm, leverage a best practice or join a tiger team, by all means do it. Just don't say you're doing it."

Jargons tend to confuse, even bore readers.

It's a good idea to avoid jargon unless absolutely unavoidable.

Avoid needless jargon    In a Forbes article titled The Most Annoying, Pretentious and

Barriers to written communication

Effective written communication could mean the difference when you're trying to land your dream job; prevent your promotion after you land the job; or prohibit your success in the academic world. To break down barriers in written communication, don't rush when writing because writing too quickly often leads to errors that cause misunderstandings. Avoid misunderstandings by reviewing your writing before you submit it. Clear written communication is an important aspect in any business or academic correspondence.

Small stuff Topic of the correspondence Meaning Format

Small Stuff

Incorrect grammar or spelling errors may seem a trivial detail in correspondence such as an e-mail, but lazy writing can distract the reader from the point you are trying to make. While it's unavoidable to make an error on occasion, when your text is full of them, negative consequences such as job loss or course failure can follow. Minor errors can indicate that you are uneducated or careless. For example, avoid common spelling mistakes, including using "to" instead of "too," and "loose" instead of "lose" when referring to something that's lost. Know when to use "their," "there" and "they're," for instance. Always remember to spell-check your work, and, if possible, find someone to edit your work before you submit it.

Topic of the Correspondence

Writers often include useless information instead of focusing on the target, but the message is communicated more easily by leading with the topic of the discussion. Follow the text by details about the topic. You can clearly communicate any additional information by using the word "also" or the phrase "I should also note." Separate your writing into paragraphs when writing about side topics. By breaking your text into chunks, the reader can more easily follow the flow of your discussion.


A misunderstanding can occur when the receiver of the message misinterprets the intention of the writer. Words mean different things to different people in various contexts. An example in Flat World Knowledge cites a Japanese manager of inventory at a small business who wrote to his employee that he wanted any shipment in excess of 25 packages delivered to his store in Japan. The person on the receiving end thought that if there were 28 packages shipped, the manager wanted all 28 shipped to him in Japan. The manager actually wanted only the excess packages shipped to him, which comprised just three packages.


Formatting your correspondence correctly is important for effective communication. Without a subject, your name and specifics about what you are referencing, you can fill the text with communication barriers. For example, an e-mail to a professor from a student that doesn't have a name in it can pose a problem for the professor to address an issue the student has. In his e-mail, the student complained that he couldn't complete the task by the deadline. The professor had no idea what to say because the student didn't identify the class or himself.

Importance of written communication

The University of North Carolina defines written communication as, “clear expression of ideas in writing; includes grammar, organization, and structure.” Effective written communication is an important aspect of business and personal communication because it sends messages that are flat, lacking other elements of communication such as tone of voice, a person’s body language and gestures. Written communication can be confusing, offensive and ineffective if it is poorly written, uses vague terminology or doesn’t provide concrete definitions for the message attempting to be sent.

Purpose Requirement Outcome Types Consideration

The purpose of effective written communication is to send a message with the intention of the recipient understanding the message and responding to it. For example, if a supervisor needs to get a profit-and- loss statement to her manager, she may print it out, email it or fax it with the required information in writing. If the purpose of the written communication is not achieved, the needed information may not be understood, which can cause the manager to appear to her superior as being unorganized or unable to perform her duties appropriately.

Effective written communication should use appropriate spelling, punctuation and grammar. It communicates the information in such a way that the reader can understand, logically organizes the information, takes into consideration the format and style of writing based on the who it’s intended for and accurately outlines the information.

The outcome of effective written communication is productivity, purpose and clear direction. Written communication has become integrated into daily life through email, text messaging and online chatting. If the written communication is effective, the recipients know what is expected and how to accomplish the goals. If it’s ineffective, more time will be spent attempting to clarify than was originally needed.

Written communication is any form of using written words to send a message. The different types of written communication are a handwritten letter, typed letter, email, text message and online chatting.

Written communication is appropriate in different situations, but may be inappropriate in others. For example, if a person is summonsed to appear in court, calling the court house is an ineffective way to communicate with the government. Written communication is the expected and functional way to communicate with the government. In order for communication to effective, it must be sent to the appropriate people. For example, if a person has an issue with his boss, sending a letter to the customer service department would be ineffective because that department handles external complaints, not employee issues.

Effective Written Communication Tips

Whether you're writing a letter to a friend or writing a business proposal, knowing how to express yourself succinctly and quickly through written communication is a skill that will serve you well. When dealing with written communication, your facial expression and body language cannot be taken into account, which is why letters and emails should be straightforward and easy to read. Carefully defining your message helps you improve your written communication so you're more effective with the written word.

Outline your letter Define your message Use plain language Proofread your work

Sketching out a quick outline of what you want to say in your letter or email can help you identify any areas where you may be unclear or confusing in your message. Your outline doesn't need to be thorough, but it should list what you want to achieve through your written communication. For instance, if you're writing a letter to thank a company for a recent interview, your outline may have a few keywords about your experience and a personal note you can type into a more formal letter.

Before you begin writing , look over your outline. You should be able to clearly define the purpose of your written communication from just a few words. It should be the same when you're writing a letter or email. Your reader shouldn't have to read and analyze your words in order to decipher what your message might be. When you begin introducing your message, do so at the beginning of the letter, adding specifics, pleasantries and personal information in the rest of the body of the letter.

When writing a more formal letter, it can be tempting to use flowery or archaic language to express yourself. In our modern society, written communication should be done with plain language, according to the business website While the greetings should follow traditional protocol, your letter should be easy to understand. Remember that your receiver won't have the benefit of seeing you when she reads the letter, so formal language may be perceived as stilted when you hoped it would be professional.

Before you send an email or stamp your letter, read your communication over a few times out loud. Hearing yourself speaking the words that you've written can alert you to spelling mistakes, confusing wording and grammatical errors in your communication. If you're having a hard time separating yourself from your work and the letter is very important, have a friend or family member read it over to ensure that your message is clear and the tone is appropriate.