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Bacterial Concrete- A Self

Repairing
Biomaterial
PRESENTATION
BY
Er Parampreet Kaur

Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical


Campus
Ferozepur

Introduction
Cracking

of Concrete is an inevitable
phenomenon.
Remediation of already existing cracks
has been the subject of research from
many years.
The various products such as structural
epoxy resins, other synthetic mixtures
are used as a filling agents for repairing
concrete.
The use of Epoxy resins is neither Ecofriendly nor safe for human health.

Objectives
To

Study the strength regaining capacity


of the cracked specimens remediated
with different bacterial class.
To study the durability aspects of
bacterial concrete and its resistance
towards freeze-thaw attack , sulphate
attack, alkaki aggregate attack.
To Identify microscopic evidence using
scanning electron microscopy supporting
bacterial participation in mineral
precipitation.

HOW DOES BACTERIA REMEDIATE CRACKS?


CHEMISTRY OF THE PROCESS

Microorganisms (cell surface charge is negative) draw


cations including Ca2+ from the environment to deposit on
the cell surface. The following equations summarize the
role of bacterial cell as a nucleation site.
Ca2+ + Cell Cell-Ca2+
Cell-Ca2+ + CO3 2- Cell-CaCO3
The bacteria can thus act as a nucleation site which
facilitates in the precipitation of calcite which can
eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete

Visual Aspects of Bacteria in


Concrete
Bacteria

Efficency in Different
medium Concentrations .
Bacterial inherent ability to
precipitate calcite continiously
Bacteria Survival Duration in
Specimen.
Reaction Tendency of Different
Types of Bacteria under Different
medium Concentrations.

Bacterial Classification :In this study the four different


kinds of bacteria were used and
comparison results are based on
them, these are classified as:B. Pasturii
B. Subtiles
B. Sphaericus
B. Cohnii

Formation Mechanism
(B.Pasturii)
B . Pasturii is formed by the
mechanism of oxidative
determination of amino acids and the
nutrients required for its formation
are:Trypticase
Yeast extract
Tricine
Agar solution
Glutamic Acid

Formation Mechanism
(B.Subtiles)
B . Subtiles is formed by the
mechanism of Hydrolysis of Urea
and the nutrients required for its
formation are:Urea
Calcium salts
Ammonium chloride
Sodium Bicarbonate

Formation Mechanism (B.


Sphaericus)
B . Sphaericus is formed by the
mechanism of bio oxidative
analysis of Urea and the nutrients
required for its formation are:Urea
Yeast Extract
Calcium Salts

Formation Mechanism (B. Cohnii)


B . Cohnii is formed by the
mechanism of bio oxidative analysis
of Urea and the nutrients required
for its formation are:Peptone
Yeast extract
Actical
Natamycine

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY INVESTIGATION


To give a visual documentation of the extent of mineral
precipitation in various regions within the cement mortar.
To characterize the microstructure relationship of the
precipitates and the filling material.
To confirm the elemental composition of the mineral
precipitates.
To identify microscopic evidence supporting the
participation of bacteria in mineral precipitation.

XRD Analysis
XRD

provides most definitive


structural information.
It uses monochromatic beam for
sample analysis.
Single crystal differaction
mechanism is adopted in XRD.
XRD is based on the indexing the
patterns.
Most effective in cubic
specimens.

Microstructure
Examinations:It

is based on the micrograph


obtained by scanning electron
microscopic analysis.
From the micrograph it was
investigated the growth of rod
shaped fabulous deposition in
concrete with bacteria.
It also reveals the calcifying
power of the different bacterial
micro-organisms and their

Magnified image of full-grown calcite crystals with distinct and


sharp edges, found in the interior surface of the crack.

Rod Shaped Deposition on


Concrete Surface

Rod Shaped
Impressions

Rod-shaped impressions, consistent with the dimensions of B. pasteurii


are spread around the calcite crystals, formed on the surface of the
specimens subjected to sulfate attack.

Developing Calcite
Crystals

Bacterial
Endospores

Developing calcite crystals, at the surface of the specimen subjected to


deicing chemical attack. Presence of endospores consistent with the

Magnified Image of Calcite


Crystals

agnified image of calcite crystals developed on the surface of th


ement mortar beams with bacteria subjected to alkali aggregate

Durability Comparison
100

100

100

100

100
91.81

86.11

92.05

87.52

Durability Factor.

80

60

0 cycles

40

300 cycles

20

0
Control1

Control2

Bacteria1

Bacteria2

Mix Designation

Comparison of change in durability factor for specimens made with and


without bacteria and subjected to freeze thaw cycles

Compressive Strength
Comparision
Bacteria

Specimen
Compressive
Strength

B. Pasturii

30

B. Subtiles

33

B. Sphaericus

28

B. Cohnii

29

CONCLUSIONS
It was found that beams with micro cracks remediated with a bacterial
(Bacillus pasteurii) concentration of 8.6108 cells/ml regained 81.97% of
its original strength.
Higher concentrations reduced the regaining strength of the beams.
It was found that all the specimens with bacteria formed a layer of calcite
at the surface, thus improving its impermeability and its resistance to
alkaline environment, sulfate attack, deicing chemicals and freeze-thaw.
Scanning Electron Microscope was used to document the role of
bacteria in improving the durability aspects of concrete.
Thus it can be concluded that cracks remediated with bacteria can
improve the strength and the durability of the structure.

Conclusion

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

BThe
. Subtiles
is foundacknowledge
to be most
forthe
authors gratefully
theeffective
support formicrobiome
the research by
the
crack
remediation
it remediates
the CMS-9802127.
crack easily The
National
Science
Foundationasunder
contract number
and
in development
of strength
in early age.
SEMhelps
analyses
were conducted
in the Engineering
and Mining
Experiment Station of the South Dakota School of Mines and
Technology under the guidance of Dr. Edward Duke.