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Cellular

Respiration
Food In
ATP Out!

Feel the Burn


Do you like to run, bike, or swim? These
all are good ways to exercise. When you
exercise, your body uses oxygen to get
energy from glucose,a six-carbon sugar.
1. How does your body feel at the start of exercise, such as a long, slow
run? How do you feel 1 minute into the run; 10 minutes into the run?
2. What do you think is happening in your cells to cause the changes
in how you feel?
3. Think about running as fast as you can for 100 meters. Could you
keep up this pace for a much longer distance? Explain your answer.

Cellular respiration: the process by


which glucose molecules are broken down
to release energy.
Occurs in mitochondria of all eukaryotic
cellsplant cells and animal cells.

What is cellular
respiration?

2 Types of Cellular Respiration


Aerobic Respiration: requires oxygen
Produces 36 ATP (from each glucose
molecule)
Steps: Glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle and ETC

Anaerobic Respiration: does not require


oxygen
Produces only 2 ATP (from each glucose
molecule)
Steps: Glycolysis, Fermentation

Steps of aerobic respiration = oxygen present in


the cell:
1. Glycolysis: Glucose is broken down producing
pyruvate, ATP and NADH.
2. Krebs cycle: Produces ATP and NADH & FADH2
3. Electron Transport Chain: Produces 32-34 ATP
molecules and water

What are the steps of aerobic


respiration?

Section 9-1

Glucose
Glycolysis

Krebs
cycle

Fermentation
(without oxygen)

Electron
transport

Alcohol or
lactic acid

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

The equation:

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

Glucose
(C6H1206)
+
Oxygen
(02)

Glycolysis

Krebs
Cycle

Electron
Transport
Chain

ATP
CO2
+
H2O

Glycolysis: 1st stage of cellular respiration


Lysis = splitting
Glyco = glucose
Occurs in cytoplasm of eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells

What is glycolysis?

What goes in?


Glucose
2 ATP
What comes out?
2 pyruvate molecules (splitting of 6 carbon
glucose)
4 ATP (net gain of 2 ATP)
2NADH (goes to electron transport chain)

What is glycolysis?

Glycolysis

Section 9-1

Glucose

Glycolysis
2 Pyruvic acid

To the electron
transport chain

This process is so fast that cells can produce


thousands of ATP molecules in just a few
milliseconds!
Glycolysis does NOT require oxygen (which
is good because this process can happen when
oxygen is not available: strenuous exercise)

What is glycolysis?

Pyruvic acid can enter the mitochondria, but


cannot enter the Krebs cycle
Must be converted to 2 molecules of Acetyl
Co-A (a 2 Carbon molecule)
This step produces CO2

What happens before the


Krebs Cycle?

Figure 9.10 Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

Krebs Cycle: 2nd stage of cellular respiration


occurs in mitochondria
What goes in?
Acetyl Co-A
What comes out?
Carbon dioxide (from pyruvic acid breakdown)
2 ATP
Electron carriers NADH and FADH2 (similar to
NADPH in photosynthesis)

What is the Krebs Cycle?

The Krebs Cycle is also called the


Citric Acid Cycle

Section 9-2

The Krebs Cycle


Citric Acid
Production

Mitochondrion

Electron transport Chain: 3rd stage of cellular


respiration
Occurs in the mitochondrias inner membranes
(Cristae)
The energy the electrons from NADH and FADH2
release is captured as ATP.
The final electron acceptor is oxygen. Hydrogen
atoms carrying the electrons are joined to this Oxygen
producing Water.

How does the electron transport


chain help us produce ATP?

What goes in?

NADH and FADH2 molecules


Oxygen
What comes out?

32-34 ATP!
Water (proof: breath on a mirror)

ETC

E- Transport Chain

Electron Transport Chain

Section 9-2

Electron Transport
Hydrogen Ion Movement

Channel

Mitochondrion

Intermembrane
Space
ATP synthase

Inner
Membrane

Matrix

ATP Production

Aerobic respiration produces


36 ATP molecules!

How much ATP?

Anaerobic Respiration:
If no oxygen is present, the pyruvate
produced from glycolysis must follow a
different path.
Fermentation:
lactic acid and carbon dioxide
ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

What happens if there is no


oxygen present?

Glycolysis is the first step in anaerobic


respiration and produces the only 2 ATP
molecules made.
Anaerobic respiration never gets inside a
mitochondrion.

What is the first step in anaerobic


respiration?

Fermentation
2 types:
1. Lactic Acid Fermentation:
occurs in animal cells cytoplasm including
muscle cells
converts pyruvate into lactic acid
causes muscle soreness

What happens after glycolysis


if no oxygen is present?

2. Alcoholic Fermentation:
occurs in plants and fungi (yeast) cells
cytoplasm
converts pyruvate to ethyl alcohol and
CO2
causes bread to rise, creates wine and
beer

What happens after glycolysis


if no oxygen is present?

ComparisonofFermentationtoCellularRespiration

LacticAcid
glucose
glycolysis(pyruvicacid)

Alcoholic

Cellularrespiration

glucose

glucose

glycolysis(pyruvicacid)

glycolysis(pyruvicacid)

carbondioxide

carbondioxide

lacticacid

alcohol

water

2ATP

2ATP

38ATP

If there are not enough carbohydrates


in an organisms diet to meet its
energy needs, other molecules will be
broken down to release energy.
One gram of fat contains more than
twice the energy of a gram of glucose.
Can other fuels besides carbohydrates
be used to make ATP?

ComparingPhotosynthesisand
CellularRespiration
Table9.1ComparisonofPhotosynthesisandCellularRespiration
Photosynthesis

CellularRespiration

Energyfromsunstoredinglucose

Foodbrokendown
Energyofglucosereleased

Foodsynthesized

Carbondioxidetakenin
Oxygengivenoff

Carbondioxidegivenoff
Oxygentakenin

ProducessugarsfromPGAL

ProducesCO2andH2O

Requireslight

Doesnotrequirelight

Occursonlyinpresenceof
chlorophyll

Occursinalllivingcells