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CARDIAC MUSCLE

MECHANISM
J U W I TA C A N D R A D E W I
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Intercalated
disc__________

CARDIAC MUSCLE
Bundles form thick
myocardium
Cardiac muscle cells are
single cells (not called
fibers)
Cells branch
Cells join at
intercalated discs
1-2 nuclei in center
Here fiber = long row
of joined cardiac muscle
cells
Inherent rhythmicity:
each cell! (muscle cells
beat separately without
any stimulation)

MUSCLE FIBER STRUCTURE

Figure 12-3b: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Skeletal Muscle

MUSCLE FIBER STRUCTURE

Figure 12-4: T-tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum

MYOFIBRILS: SITE OF CONTRACTION

Figure 12-3c-f: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Skeletal Muscle

CONTRACTION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE


FIBERS
Cardiac muscle fibers contract via excitationcontraction coupling, using a mechanism unique to
cardiac muscle called calcium-induced calcium release.
Excitation-contraction couplingdescribes the process of
converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical
response.
Calcium-induced calcium release involves the
conduction of calcium ions into the cardiomyocyte,
triggering further release of ions into the cytoplasm.
Contraction in cardiac muscle follows the sliding
filament model of contraction.

T-tubule
Deep invagination of the sarcolemma, which is the
plasma membrane, only found in skeletal and
cardiac muscle cells.
Calcium-induced calcium release (CICR)
A process whereby calcium can trigger release of
further calcium from the muscle sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
Excitation contraction coupling (ECC)
The physiological process of converting an electrical
stimulus to a mechanical response.

THE PATHWAY OF CONTRACTION CAN BE


DESCRIBED IN FIVE STEPS:
1. An action potential, induced by pacemaker cells, is conducted to
contractile cardiomyocytes through intercalated discs,
specifically gap junctions.
2. As the action potential travels between sarcomeres, it activates
the calcium channels in the T-tubules, resulting in an influx of
calcium ions into the cell.
3. Calcium in the cytoplasm then binds to cardiac troponin-C, which
moves the troponin complex away from the actin binding site.
This removal of the troponin complex frees the actin to be bound
by myosin and initiates contraction.
4. The myosin head pulls the actin filament toward the center of
the sarcomere, contracting the muscle.
5. Intracellular calcium is then removed by the sarcoplasmic
reticulum, dropping intracellular calcium concentration, returning
the troponin complex to its inhibiting position on the active site
of actin, and effectively ending contraction.

MECHANISM OF CARDIAC MUSCLE EXCITATION,


CONTRACTION & RELAXATION

Figure 14-11: Excitation-contraction coupling and relaxation in cardiac


muscle

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