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OCAL GOVERNMENTS
In the Philippines

History of Local
Governments
Local Government
Units
Autonomous Region
for
Muslim Mindanao

History of Local
Governments

The cities, municipalities, and provinces of today


evolved
from the barangays of pre-Spanish times, the pueblos
and
cabildos of the Spanish colonial days and the
townships

History of Local
Governments

The Barangays

The pre-Spanish barangays were the first political and soc


organizations of the Philippines. A barangay was a settlem
of some 30 to 100 families and a governmental unit in itse

History of Local
Governments
Spanish Conquest and Centralism

The lack of unity among the warring barangays made conq


easier for the Spaniards. Gradually, the datus were shorn
their powers. The Spaniards organized pueblos (municipali
Cabildos (cities), and provincias (provinces). The province
were established for the convenience of administration a
constituted the immediate agencies through which the ce
government could extend its authority on numerous village
In place of the barangays, barrios were established, and th
datus were made into cabezas de barangay whose only
remaining function was the collection of taxes for the Span
government.

History of Local
Governments

Local Governments
Republic

during

the

First

Philip

The importance of local governments was recognized by


Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and Apolinario Mabini in their progra
of government for the First Philippine Republic. Fillipino lea
knew that if a strong and enduring Filipino nation was to
established, it must be able to maintain itself i
mergencies,
and the whole political fabric must be well founded on an
efficient system of local governments.
The Malolos Constitution provided a separate article on loc
government (Title XI, Article 82). Local autonomy was mad
explicit in the introductory portion which stipulated that
the organization and powers of the provincial and municip
assemblies shall be governed by their respective laws.

History of Local
Governments
Local Governments

during

the

Americ

Regime
The Americans contributed very little, if at all, to the
development of local autonomy. In fact, national-local
relationship reverted to the strong centralism that
characterized the Spanish colonial regime. .

The Commissions blueprint for town organization provide


for a President to be elected viva voce by residents of
town
with the approval of the Commanding Officer. His duty
consisted in the establishment of a police force, collect
of
taxes, enforcement of regulations on market and sanitati
establishment of schools, and the provision for lighting
facilities.

History of Local
The Commonwealth and Centralism
Governments
The forms and patterns of local government during the

American civil administration remained essentially the sam


during the Commonwealth period. The only notable chan
were the transfer of central supervision from the Executiv
Bureau to the Department of Interior and the creation
more
chartered cities.

President Quezon, the central figure of the governm


during
this period, even argued against autonomy in the cit
hinting
that under the unitary system of government which ex
n
the Philippines, the national chief executive does
should

History of Local
Local
Governments under the Republic
Governments

The national government was supreme and lo


governments
were merely its political and administrative subdivisio
Most
of the formal and real powers are vested and exercised
the
national government. Local units, however, possessed
certain
degree of autonomy.
During Marcos's authoritarian years (1972-86), a Ministry
Local Government was instituted to invigorate provincial,
municipal, andbarangaygovernments. But, Marcos's real
purpose was to establish lines of authority that bypassed
provincial governments and ran straight to Malacaang. A
local officials were beholden to Marcos, who could appo
or

History of Local
Governments
Local Governments at present

After the People's Power Revolution, the new Aquino


government decided to replace all the local officials who h
served Marcos. Corazon Aquino delegated this task to her
political ally, Aquilino Pimentel. Pimentel named officers in
charge of local governments all across the nation. Local offi
elected in 1988 were to serve until June 1992, under the
transitory clauses of the new constitution. Thereafter, term
office were to be three years, with a three-term limit.

On October 10, 1991, The Local Government Code 1991 (R


7160) was signed into law. This Code ordained an authenti
workable local autonomy through the devolution of certain
powers from the national government to the local governm

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Local Government
Units

BARANGAY

A barangay (Filipino: baranggay, is the smallest administr


division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for
village, district or ward.

Local Government
Units
Municipalities and cities are composed of
barangays, and they may be further subdivided
into smaller areas called purk (English: zone),
and sitio, which is a territorial enclave inside a
barangay, especially in rural areas. In writing,
barangay is sometimes abbreviated to "Brgy." or
"Bgy.". As of June 28, 2011 there are a total of
42,026 barangays throughout the Philippines.
SEC. 384. Role of the Barangay.
- As the basic political unit, the barangay serves
as the primary planning and implementing unit
of government policies, plans, programs,
projects, and activities in the community, and as
a forum wherein the collective views of the

Local Government
Units

MUNICIPALITY

A municipality (Filipino: bayan; munisipalidad) is a local


government unit in the Philippines. Municipalities are also
called towns (which is actually a better translation of
"bayan").
They are distinct from cities, which are a different catego
of
local government unit (LGU).

Local Government
Units

They have been granted corporate personality enabling th


to enact local policies and laws, enforce them, and govern
jurisdictions. They can enter into contracts and other
transactions through their elected and appointed officials
can tax. The National Government assists and supervises
the local government to make sure that they do not violate
national law. Local Governments have their own executive
legislative branches and the checks and balances between
these two major branches, along with their separation, are
more pronounced than that of the national government.
The Judicial Branch of the Republic of the Philippines also
caters to the needs of local government units. Local
governments, such as a municipalities, do not have their o
judicial branch: their judiciary is the same as that of the
national government.

Local Government
Units

A municipality, upon reaching a certain requirements-minim


population size, and minimum annual revenue-may opt to
become a city. First, a bill must be passed in Congress, the
signed into law by the President and then the residents wo
vote in the succeeding plebiscite to accept or reject cityho
One benefit in being a city is that the city government gets
more budget, but taxes are much higher than in municipa
As of September 30, 2009 there are 1,514 municipalities.

SEC. 440. Role of the Municipality.


-The municipality, consisting of a group of barangays, serv
primarily as a general purpose government for the coordin
and delivery of basic, regular and direct services and effec
governance of the inhabitants within its territorial jurisdicti

Local Government
Units

CITY

A city (lungsod, or sometimes siyudad in Filipino


Tagalog)
is a tier of local government in the Philippines. All Philipp
cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corpor
and
administrative entities is governed by their own specific
charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 199
which specifies the administrative structure and political

Local Government
Units

Only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, and


with this city charter Congress confers to a city certain powers
that regular municipalities or even other cities may not have.
Despite the differences in the powers accorded to each city,
all cities regardless of status are given special treatment in term
of being given a bigger share of the internal revenue allotment
(IRA) compared to regular municipalities, as well as being
generally more autonomous than regular municipalities.
There are twelve metropolitan areas in the Philippines as
defined by the National Economic and Development Authority
(NEDA). Metro Manila is the largest conurbation or urban
agglomeration in the country, and its official metropolitan area
is composed of the city of Manila plus 15 neighboring cities
and a municipality. Other metropolitan areas are centered
around the cities of Baguio, Dagupan, Angeles, Olongapo,
Batangas, Naga, Cebu, Iloilo, Bacolod, Cagayan de Oro, Davao
and Zamboanga City.

Local Government
Units

Classification
The Local Government Code of 1991 (Republic Act No. 716
classifies all cities into one of three categories:

Highly Urbanized Cities - Cities with a minimum populat


two hundred thousand (200,000) inhabitants, as certified b
the National Statistics Office, and with the latest annual inc
of at least Fifty Million Pesos (P50,000,000.00) based on 19
constant prices, as certified by the city treasurer. There are
currently 33 highly urbanized cities in the Philippines, 16 of
them located in Metro Manila.

Local Government
Units

Independent Component Cities - Cities whose charters p


their voters from voting for provincial elective officials.
Independent component cities are independent of the provin
There are five such cities: Dagupan, Cotabato, Naga,
Ormoc and Santiago.

Component Cities - Cities which do not meet the above


requirements are considered component cities of the provinc
in which they are geographically located. If a component city
is located within the boundaries of two (2) or more provinces
such city shall be considered a component of the province o
which it used to be a municipality.

Local Government
Units

Income classification
Cities are classified according to average annual income ba
on the previous 3 calendar years. Effective July 28, 2008 th
thresholds for the income classes for cities are:
Class Average annual income
First PHP 400 million or more
Secon PHP 320 million or more but less than PHP 400
million
d
Third
Fourt
h
Fifth

PHP 240 million or more but less than PHP 320


million
PHP 160 million or more but less than PHP 240
million
PHP 80 million or more but less than PHP 160
million

Local Government
Units

SEC. 448. Role of the City.


The city, consisting of more urbanized and developed baran
serves as a general-purpose government for the coordinati
and delivery of basic, regular, and direct services and effec
governance of the inhabitants within its territorial jurisdictio

Local Government
Units

PROVINCE

The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary polit


and
administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80
provinces at present, further subdivided into compon
cities
and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as
independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial
government. Each province is administered by an elected

Local Government
Units

Classification
Provinces are classified according to average
annual income
based on the previous 3 calendar years. Effective
July 28, 2008
the thresholds for the income classes for cities are
Class Average annual income
First 450 million or more
Secon
d

360 million or more but less than 450


million

Third

270 million or more but less than 360


million
180 million or more but less than 270
million
90 million or more but less than
180
million
below 90 million

Fourth
Fifth
Sixth

Local Government
Units
SEC. 459. Role of the Province.
The province, composed of a cluster of
municipalities, or municipalities and component
cities, and as a political and corporate unit of
government, serves as a dynamic mechanism for
developmental processes and effective
governance of local government units within its
territorial jurisdiction.

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Autonomous Region
for
Muslim Mindanao

Autonomous Region in Muslim


Mindanao (ARMM)
is the region, located in the Mindanao island group
of the Philippines, that is composed of
predominantly Muslim provinces, namely: Basilan
(except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao,
Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. It is the only region that has its
own government. The regional capital is at

Autonomous Region
for
Muslim Mindanao
The ARMM previously included the province
of Shariff Kabunsuan until July 16, 2008,
when Shariff Kabunsuan ceased to exist as
a province after the Supreme Court in
Sema v. Comelec declared
unconstitutional the "Muslim Mindanao
Autonomy Act 201", which created it.

Autonomous Region
for
Establishment
of the ARMM
The Autonomous
Region of Muslim Mindanao region
Muslim
Mindanao

was first created on August 1, 1989 through Republic


Act No. 6734 (otherwise known as the Organic Act) in
pursuance with a constitutional mandate to provide for
an autonomous area in Muslim Mindanao. A plebiscite
was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao
del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao,
Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, TawiTawi, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur;
and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General
Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto
Princesa and Zamboanga to determine if their residents
would want to be part of the ARMM. Of these areas,
only four provinces - Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu
and Tawi-Tawi - voted favorably for inclusion in the new
autonomous region. The ARMM was officially
inaugurated on November 6, 1990 in Cotabato City,

Autonomous Region
for
Muslim Mindanao
Population
(2000)

Area
(km)

Pop. density
(per km)

408,520

1,994.1

204.9

Lanao del Sur Marawi

1,138,544

12,051.9

94.5

Maguindanao Shariff Aguak

1,273,715

7,142.0

178.3

Province
Basilan

Capital
Isabela City

Shariff
Kabunsuan

Datu Odin
Sinsuat

103,715

7,142.0

178.3

Sulu

Jolo

849,670

2,135.3

397.9

Tawi-Tawi

Bongao

450,346

3,426.6

131.4

Autonomous Region
ARMMfor
Organizational Structure
Executive
Muslim
Mindanao

The region is headed by a Regional Governor. The


Regional Governor and Regional Vice Governor are
elected directly like regular local executives. Regional
ordinances are created by the Regional Assembly,
composed of Assemblymen, also elected by direct vote.
Regional elections are usually held one year after
general elections (national and local) depending on
what legislation from the Philippine Congress. Regional
officials have a fixed term of three years, which can be
extended by an act of Congress.
The Regional Governor is the chief executive of the
regional government, and is assisted by a cabinet not
exceeding 10 members. He appoints the members of
the cabinet, subject to confirmation by the Regional
Legislative Assembly. He has control of all the regional
executive commissions,

Autonomous Region
for
Muslim
Mindanao
Term
Governor
Party

Vice Governor

19901993 Zacaria Candao

Lakas-NUCD

19931996 Lininding Pangandaman

Lakas-NUCDNabil Tan
UMDP

Lakas-NUCDUMDP

19962002 Nurallaj Misuari

Lakas-NUCDGuimid P. Matalam
UMDP

Lakas-NUCDUMDP

2001

Alvarez Isnaji

Benjamin Loong

Party
Lakas-NUCD

Lakas-NUCDUMDP

20012005 Parouk S. Hussin

Lakas-NUCDMahid M. Mutilan
UMDP

Lakas-NUCDUMDP

20052009 Zaldy Ampatuan

Lakas Kampi
CMD

Ansaruddin-Abdulmalik A. Adiong

Lakas Kampi
CMD

20092011 Ansaruddin-Abdulmalik A. Adionga

Lakas Kampi
CMD

Reggie Sahali-Generalea

Lakas Kampi
CMD

2011Present Mujiv Sabbihi Hataman

Anak Mindanao Hadja Bainon Karonb

Liberal

Autonomous Region
for
Muslim Mindanao
Legislative

The ARMM has a unicameral Regional Legislative


Assembly headed by a Speaker. It is composed of
three members for every congressional district.
The current membership is 24, where 6 are from
Lanao del Sur including Marawi City, 6 from
Maguindanao, 6 from Sulu, 3 from Basilan and 3
from Tawi-Tawi.
The Regional Legislative Assembly is the
legislative branch of the ARMM government. The
regular members (3 members/district) and
sectoral representatives, have 3-year terms;
maximum of 3 consecutive terms.

Autonomous Region
for
ARMMMindanao
powers and basic principles
Muslim

RA 9054 provides that ARMM "shall remain an


integral and inseparable part of the national
territory of the Republic." The President exercises
general supervision over the Regional Governor.
The Regional Government has the power to create
its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes,
fees, and charges, subject to Constitutional
provisions and the provisions of RA 9054. The
Shariah applies only to Muslims; its applications
are limited by pertinent constitutional provisions
(prohibition against cruel and unusual
punishment).

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