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A REPORT

ON
SUBSTATION LAYOUT AND ACCESSORIES
&
BUSBAR ARRANGEMENT

BY:SUB. TO:-

Mr. S P JAISWAL

AMIT KUMAR SINGH


NEJAMUL HOQUE
HEMENDRA KUMAR
RAJPUT

CONTENTS
Part A : SUBSTATION LAYOUT
Single line diagram

Substation Switchyard Accessories


Lightning Arrestor
CVT
Earthing switch
Wave trap
Isolator
Current transformer
Circuit Breaker
Power Transformer
Current transformer
Reactors and capacitors
Other Switchyard Equipments

PLCC
SCADA

PART B: BUSBAR ARRANGEMENT

Single bus system


Single bus system with bus sectionalizer
Double bus system
Double breaker bus system
One and a half breaker bus system
Main and transfer bus system
Double bus system with bypass isolator
Ring main bus system

PARTA
SWITCHYARD
LAYOUTING

CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATIONS
Based on working
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Generating substation (step up s/s)


Grid substation
Switching substation
Secondary substation
-- a) sub transmission
voltage
b) primary
distribution
c) distribution
substation

. Based on structure
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Outdoor conventional air insulated substation (AIS)


Indoor substation
Compressed air insulated
GIS

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

LIGHTNING
ARRESTOR

Alightning arresteris a device used on electricalpower


systemsto protect theinsulationon the system from the damaging
effect oflightning.
Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for power system
protection since the mid 1970s.
The typical lightning arrester also known assurge arrester has a
high voltage terminal and a ground terminal.
Current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases
to earth.

PICTURES OF SURGE DIVERTER


(LIGHTNING ARRESTOR)

CVT
Capacitor Voltage Transformer(CVT),
Capacitance
Coupled Voltage
Transformer(CCVT)

oTo step downextra high voltage signals


and provide alow voltage .
o For measurement or to operate
aprotective relay.

EARTHING SWITCH
Earth Switch is used to
discharge the voltage on the
circuit to the earth for safety.
Earth switch is mounted on the
frame of the isolators.
It is located for each incomer
transmission line and each side
of the busbar section.

LINE TRAP
(WAVE TRAP)
Connected in series with the power (transmission) line.
It blocks the high frequency carrier waves (24KHz to
500KHz) and let power waves (50 Hz - 60 Hz) to pass
through.
It is basically an inductor of rating in Milli henry (approx
1 milli Henry for 220 KV 1250 Amp.).
It has three main components:1. Main coil.
2. Tuning Device.
3. Lightning Arrestor.

ISOLATOR
Disconnector orIsolator

switchis used to make sure


that an electrical circuit can be
completely de-energised for
service or maintenance.
Isolator is anoff-loaddevice.

Types of Isolators are


1. Central rotating, horizontal
swing
2. Centre-Break
3. Vertical swing
4. Pantograph type

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
Current transformers are
used for Stepping down
current for measurement,
protection and control.
Current transformers are of
two types
1. Protective CT
2. Measuring CT

CIRCUIT BREAKERS
ACircuit breakeris an automatically operatedelectrical

switchdesigned to protect anelectrical circuit from damage


caused byoverloadorshort circuit. Its basic function is to
detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to
immediately discontinue electrical flow.
All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although
details vary substantially depending on the voltage class,
current rating and type of the circuit breaker.
Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to
interrupt the circuit.
Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units
have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy
to the springs.

Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc


: Lengthening / deflection of the arc
: Intensive cooling (in jet chambers)
: Division into partial arcs
: Zero point quenching
: Connectingcapacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits

High-voltage breakers are broadly classified


by the medium used to extinguish the arc
Bulk oil
Minimum oil
Air blast
Vacuum
SF6

BUSBAR

Busbars receive
power from incoming
circuits and deliver
power to outgoing
circuits.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Power Transformers are used to step up or step


down a.c. voltages and to transfer electrical
power from one voltage level to another.

SHUNT REACTORS

Shunt Reactors are used for long EHV transmission lines to


control voltage during low load period.
Shunt reactors is also used to compensate shunt
capacitance of transmission line during low load periods.
Usually Shunt reactors are unswitched.

SEREIS REACTORS
Series reactors are
used to limit short
circuit current and to
limit current surges
associated with
fluctuating loads.
Series reactors are
located at the strategic
locations such that the
fault levels are reduced.

SHUNT CAPACITORS

Shunt capacitors are used for compensating reactive power


of LPF.
They are used for improving the power factor. It is also used
for voltage control during heavy lagging power factor loads.
They are located at the receiving stations and distribution
substations.
They are switched on during heavy loads and switched off
during low loads.

SERIES CAPACITOR

Series Capacitors are used for some long EHV a.c. lines to
improve power transferability.
They located at the sending end / receiving end of the lines.
They are provided with by pass circuit breaker and
protective spark gaps.

PART B

BUS BAR
ARRANGEMENT

CONDUCTOR USED FOR BUSES


All Aluminum conductor (AAC)
All Aluminum alloy conductor (AAAC)
Aluminum conductor with aluminum alloy
reinforced (ACAR)
Aluminum conductor with steel reinforced
(ACSR)

SINGLE BUS SYATEM


Advantages:
1.Simple in Design
2.Less Expenditure

Disadvantages:
1.In case of bus fault or bus bar isolator fault or
maintenance total Substation is out of service.
2.In case of maintenance of transformer circuit
breaker the associated transformer has also to be
shut-down. Similarly for Line also.

SINGLE BUS WITH BUS


SECTIONALISER
Advantages:
1. One complete section can be
taken out for Maintenance without
disturbing the continuity of other
section.
2. If a fault occurs on one section of
the Bus, that faulty section alone
will be isolated.

Disadvantages:
It will be a little more costly with the addition of one isolator and
some cases with Circuit breaker, C.Ts and C&R panel.

DOUBLE BUS SYSTEM


Advantages:
: Double Bus Bar Arrangement
increases the flexibility of system.

Disadvantages:
:The arrangement does not permit breaker
maintenance with out interruption.

DOUBLE BREAKER BUS


SYSTEM
Advantages:
There is no need of bus coupler as
because the operation is done by
breakers instead of isolator

Disadvantages:
Most expensive as it involves additional
breaker, CT Isolators etc for each
circuit.

ONE AND A HALF BREAKER BUS


SYSTEM
Advantages:
During any fault on any one of the buses, that faulty bus will be
cleared instantly without interrupting any feeders in the system
since all feeders will continue to feed from other healthy bus.

Disadvantages:
This scheme is much expensive due to
investment for third breaker.

MAIN AND TRANSFER BUS


SYSTEM

Switching operation:
1.First close the isolators at both side
of the bus coupler breaker.
2. Then close the bypass isolator of the
feeder which is to be transferred to
transfer bus.
3. Now energized the transfer bus by
closing the bus coupler circuit breaker
from remote.

4.After bus coupler breaker is closed, now the power from main bus
flows to the feeder line through its main breaker as well as bus
coupler breaker viatransfer bus.
5. Now if main breaker of the feeder is switched off, total power
flow will instantaneously shift to the bus coupler breaker and hence
this breaker will serve the purpose of protection for the feeder.
6. At last the operating personnel open the isolators at both sides
of the main circuit breaker to make it isolated from rest of the live
system.

DOUBLE BUS SYSTEM WITH


BYPASS ISOLATOR
Advantages:
It permits breaker maintenance without
interruption of power which is not possible
in double bus system but it provides all
the advantages of double bus system.

Disadvantages:
It however requires one additional isolator (bypass isolator) for
each feeder circuit and introduces slight complication in
system layout.

RING BUS SYSTEM


Advantages:
It provides a double feed to each feeder
circuit, opening one breaker under
maintenance or otherwise does not
affect supply to any feeder. But this
system has two major disadvantages.
1. Flexibility for breaker maintenance
2. Each breaker removable without
disconnecting load
3. Only one breaker needed per branch,
4. Each branch connected to network by two
breakers
5. All change-over switching done with
circuit-breakers & hence flexible.